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研究生:張書嘉
研究生(外文):Shu-Chia Chang
論文名稱:岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之材料特性與工程性質評估
論文名稱(外文):Material Characteristics and Evaluation of Engineering Properties of Rock Modified Asphalt Concrete
指導教授:廖敏志沈得縣沈得縣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Chih LiaoDer-Hsien Shen
口試委員:陳建旭杜嘉崇蘇育民林彥宇黃兆龍
口試委員(外文):Jian-Shiuh ChenJia-Chong DuYu-Min SuYen-Yu LinChao-Lung Hwang
口試日期:2019-07-19
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:營建工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:242
中文關鍵詞:岩瀝青岩瀝青改質瀝青濕式乾式流變特性鋪面性能
外文關鍵詞:Rock asphaltRock modified asphaltWet modification processDry modification processRheological propertyPavement performance
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本研究首先將布敦岩瀝青(Buton rock asphalt, BRA)萃取出純岩瀝青(Pure rock asphalt, PRA),再將純岩瀝青視為改質劑添加於石油瀝青AC-20中形成岩瀝青改質瀝青(Rock modified asphalt, RMA)。本研究運用動態剪切流變儀(Dynamic shear rheometer, DSR)針對岩瀝青改質瀝青進行振盪(Oscillation)試驗及多重應力潛變恢復(Multiple stress creep recovery, MSCR)試驗,探討岩瀝青改質瀝青之流變特性及純岩瀝青之最適添加量。並探討岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土(Rock modified asphalt concrete, RMAC)配合設計方法,包含乾式及濕式配合設計法,而岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土包含密級配、石膠泥及多孔隙三種類型。最後,將高分子改質瀝青混凝土視為控制組,岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土視為對照組進行力學性質、鋪面績效、耐久性質及聲學特性試驗,透過試驗結果之分析比較以探討岩瀝青應用於瀝青混凝土鋪面之成效。
研究結果顯示,在岩瀝青改質瀝青流變特性方面,純岩瀝青能提升AC-20於高溫環境或極低車速作用下之抗黏滯流能力,亦能增進AC-20於非線性黏彈性狀態時之抗永久變形能力,使岩瀝青改質瀝青於鋪面使用階段時具有良好之抗車轍能力。為求岩瀝青改質瀝青具有適當之黏彈特性以具備抵抗高溫變形及抵抗低溫開裂之能力,本研究建議岩瀝青改質瀝青之純岩瀝青添加量為15 %至34%。在岩瀝青應用於瀝青混凝土方面,就岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土力學性質而言,以濕式改質程序透過增加瀝青黏結料黏滯度及降低瀝青黏結料針入度之模式可提升岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之力學性質。就岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土鋪面績效而言,以濕式改質程序透過增加瀝青黏結料之抗車轍參數及降低瀝青黏結料不可恢復潛變柔量之模式可提升其抗車轍性能。就岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土耐久性質而言,若欲提升岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之耐久性質應由降低其瀝青黏結料之針入度著手,惟其純岩瀝青之當量含量(Pure rock asphalt equivalent content, PRAeq)大於15%時其磨耗率有偏高之趨勢。就岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土聲學特性而言,厚度為7cm之岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土有著吸收聲波頻率為600~700Hz之吸音特性,此外,岩瀝青改質多孔隙瀝青混凝土之孔隙率為20%且其表面巨觀紋理明顯,具有較佳之吸音效果。就整體而言,岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之力學性質與高分子改質瀝青混凝土相近,且岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土比高分子改質瀝青混凝土更具有抗水侵害及抗浸水剝脫之能力,而濕式岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之鋪面性能又優於乾式。添加適量之岩瀝青於瀝青混凝土中確能增進其鋪面性能。
In this study, pure rock asphalt (PRA) was extracted from Buton rock asphalt. The PRA was added as a modifier to petroleum asphalt cement (AC-20) to form rock modified asphalt (RMA). A dynamic shear rheometer was used to conduct an oscillation test and multiple stress creep recovery test on the RMA to investigate its rheological properties and the optimum addition amount of PRA. The rock modified asphalt concrete (RMAC) design method including dry and wet modification processes was discussed. The RMAC included dense graded asphalt concrete, stone matrix asphalt, and porous asphalt concrete. The polymer modified asphalt concrete was the control group and the rock asphalt modified asphalt concrete was the experimental group. The asphalt mixtures were compared in terms of mechanical properties, pavement performance, durability, and acoustic characteristics to investigate the effectiveness of rock asphalt addition to asphalt concrete.
Regarding the rheological properties of the RMA, research results show that the anti-viscous flow ability of AC-20 under high temperature environment or very low vehicle speed was improved. The permanent deformation resistance ability of AC-20 in the nonlinear viscoelasticity state was also improved. It indicates that the rutting resistance of rock modified asphalt concrete can be enhanced. In order to obtain the appropriate viscoelastic properties of rock modified asphalt to resist high-temperature deformation and low-temperature cracking, this study recommends that the PRA content of RMA be in the range of 15 to 34%.
Regarding the mechanical properties of the RMAC, the viscosity of the asphalt binder could be increased and the penetration of the asphalt binder could be reduced through the wet modification process. The mechanical properties of the RMAC could be improved. In terms of the pavement performance of the RMAC, the rutting parameter of the asphalt binder could be increased and the non-recoverable compliance of the asphalt binder could be reduced through the wet modification process. The rutting resistance performance of the RMAC could be enhanced. Concerning the durability properties of the RMAC, the penetration of asphalt binder should be reduced to improve the durability of the RMAC. However, when the pure asphalt equivalent content (PRAeq) of rock modified asphalt concrete is higher than 15%, it can be found that the asphalt mixture tends to have a higher Cantabria abrasion ratio. Regarding the acoustic characteristics of the RMAC, 7-cm-thick RMAC has the sound absorption characteristics of sound waves with absorption frequency of 600~700Hz. In addition, rock asphalt modified porous asphalt concrete has air void of 20% and its surface has large macroscopic texture. Thus, rock asphalt modified porous asphalt concrete has better sound absorbing effect.
Overall, the mechanical properties of the RMAC were comparable to those of polymer modified asphalt concrete. RMAC exhibited higher moisture damage resistance and lower moisture susceptibility compared with the polymer modified asphalt concrete. The pavement performance of the RMAC produced using the wet modification process was superior to that of the RMAC produced using the dry modification process. The pavement performance of asphalt concrete can thus be improved by adding a suitable amount of rock asphalt.
論文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIII
符號說明 XIX
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的 3
1-3 研究範圍 3
1-4 研究方法與流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2-1 石油瀝青基本性質 7
2-1-1 石油瀝青之物理性質 7
2-1-2 瀝青化學元素成分 8
2-1-3 瀝青化學型態組成成分 9
2-1-4 瀝青膠體系統 16
2-2 岩瀝青之基本性質 19
2-2-1岩瀝青之來源 19
2-2-2岩瀝青之物理性質 19
2-2-3岩瀝青之化學性質 20
2-3 改質石油瀝青 20
2-3-1石油瀝青膠泥之改質劑 21
2-3-2聚合物改質劑之改質機理 21
2-3-3改質瀝青之製作 21
2-4 瀝青流變特性 22
2-4-1 流變學與動態剪切流變儀 22
2-4-1 瀝青流變行為與流變參數 23
2-4-2動態力學分析 25
2-4-3 時間與溫度重疊原理 28
2-4-4 溫度平移因子 29
2-4-5 零剪切黏滯度及低剪切黏滯度 32
2-4-6 等值黏滯溫度 33
2-5熱拌瀝青混凝土 36
2-5-1 密級配瀝青混凝土 37
2-5-2石膠泥瀝青混凝土 38
2-5-3多孔隙瀝青混凝土 38
2-6 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土 39
第三章 試驗材料與試驗計畫 43
3-1試驗計畫 43
3-2試驗材料 45
3-3 試驗材料物性試驗計畫 47
3-3-1瀝青材料物性試驗 47
3-3-2 岩瀝青物性試驗 53
3-3-3粒料基本物性試驗 53
3-4 岩瀝青改質瀝青流變特性試驗計畫 59
3-4-1 頻率及溫度掃描試驗 60
3-4-3 多重應力潛變回復試驗 62
3-5 瀝青混凝土配合設計 63
3-5-1 密級配瀝青混凝土配合設計 64
3-5-2 石膠泥瀝青混凝土配合設計 67
3-5-3 多孔隙瀝青混凝土配合設計 71
3-6力學性質試驗 72
3-6-1馬歇爾穩定值試驗 73
3-6-2間接張力強度試驗 73
3-7 鋪面績效試驗 76
3-7-1 Cantabria磨耗試驗 76
3-7-2車轍輪跡試驗 77
3-7-3 透水試驗 79
3-8 耐久性質試驗 81
3-8-1 烘箱加速老化試驗 81
3-8-2 浸水馬歇爾試驗 83
3-8-3 浸水剝脫試驗 84
3-9 聲學特性試驗(雙麥克風法) 85
第四章 材料試驗結果分析與討論 89
4-1 瀝青材料物性分析 89
4-1-1 改質瀝青Ⅲ型及石油瀝青AC-20物性試驗結果 89
4-1-2岩瀝青物性試驗結果 91
4-2粒料物性分析 92
第五章 岩瀝青改質瀝青之流變特性 95
5-1 概述 95
5-2 岩瀝青改質瀝青之最佳拌合溫度與拌合時間 96
5-3 流變性質試驗之試體準備及試體編號 100
5-4 頻率及溫度掃描試驗結果分析 100
5-4-1 複合剪切模數主曲線及相位角主曲線 100
5-4-2 抗車轍參數及臨界高溫性能溫度 103
5-4-3 零剪切黏滯度及低剪切黏滯度 105
5-4-4 等值黏滯溫度 108
5-5 多重應力潛變回復試驗結果分析 110
5-6 岩瀝青改質瀝青中純岩瀝青含量之建議 113
第六章 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土配合設計結果分析 115
6-1 概述 115
6-2 瀝青黏結料性質探討 118
6-3 密級配瀝青混凝土配合設計結果 126
6-4 石膠泥瀝青混凝土配合設計結果 128
6-5 多孔隙瀝青混凝土配合設計結果 130
第七章 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之工程性質評估 133
7-1 密級配瀝青混凝土 133
7-1-1 力學性質試驗 133
7-1-2 鋪面績效試驗 138
7-1-3 耐久性質試驗 143
7-1-4 聲學特性試驗 152
7-2 石膠泥瀝青混凝土 153
7-2-1 力學性質試驗 153
7-2-2鋪面績效試驗 157
7-2-3耐久性質試驗 162
7-2-4 聲學特性試驗 171
7-3 多孔隙瀝青混凝土 172
7-3-1 力學性質試驗 172
7-3-2鋪面績效試驗 176
7-3-3耐久性質試驗 182
7-3-4 聲學特性試驗 191
第八章 綜合分析與應用策略 193
8-1 力學性質 193
8-2 鋪面績效 195
8-3 耐久性質 198
8-4 聲學特性 201
第九章 結論與建議 205
9-1 結論 205
9-1-1 岩瀝青改質瀝青之流變特性 205
9-1-2 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之力學性質 206
9-1-3 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之鋪面績效 207
9-1-4 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之耐久性質 207
9-1-5 岩瀝青改質瀝青混凝土之聲學特性 208
9-2 建議 209
參考文獻 211
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