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論文名稱:使用Nd: YAG雷射輔助超細線型積層製造
論文名稱(外文):Metal Components Using Nd: YAG Laser Assisted Ultrafine Wire Feed Additive Manufacturing
指導教授(外文):KUO, TSUNG-YUAN
外文關鍵詞:Metal 3D printingWire Additive ManufacturingDirected Energy DepositionPulsed Nd:YAG LaserElectron Backscattered Diffraction
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本研究使用直徑為100 μm的304不銹鋼細線作為添加材料,選擇脈衝Nd:YAG雷射作為熱源。以自行設計之機台進行列印,機台經由軟體可控制X-Y平台移動,可產生單層單道的沉積,並可進行橫向和垂直向沉積以形成3D金屬結構。研究包括脈衝電壓、脈衝寬度、脈衝頻率、送線速度與平台速度等參數對單層單道沉積之優化,並進行道與道的重疊率對表面粗糙度影響之探討,隨後進行多層沉積,並進行橫截面形態、生成相、晶粒生長、微硬度和拉伸強度等分析。研究結果顯示,以本製程方法進行積層製造具有可行性,於基準參數下層厚尺寸和表面粗糙度分別可達約為240 μm和11 μm,而在重疊率70 %時,表面粗糙度約為8 μm。機械性質方面,平行與垂直列印方向的測量結果非常相近,微硬度介於240 HV到260 HV中;拉伸強度約為880 MPa;伸長率為25 %至26 %。由電子背向散射繞射(EBSD)分析顯示,列印層之晶粒非常細緻,而組織相仍保持與原材料相同之沃斯田鐵相,由機械性質與微觀結構觀察,可證明沉積層之均質極度為優異。

In this study, we have developed a fine wire based laser metal deposition (FW-LMD) additive manufacturing process utilizing a fine stainless steel wire with a diameter of 100 μm as the additive material and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the heat source. The pulsed laser beam generates a melt pool on the substrate into which the fine wire is fed and upon moving the X- Y stage, a single pass weld bead is created upon solidification that can be laterally and vertically stacked to create a 3D metal structure. Process parameters including pulse voltage, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire feed rate and stage speed were optimised for the single pass weld bead. The effect of lateral overlap was studied to ensure low surface roughness and a relatively smooth first layer onto which subsequent layers can be deposited. We have also performed multi-layer deposition and have investigated the resulting cross-sectional morphology, microhardness, phase formation, grain growth and tensile strength. Current results are promising and the layer thickness, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness (Ra) observed using the proposed FW-LMD process was about 240 μm, ± 0.03 mm and 8 μm, respectively. In terms of mechanical properties, the test piece can be divided into horizontal and vertical directions with respect to the deposition direction. The deposition direction has no obvious influence on the mechanical properties and the micro hardness ranges from 240 HV to 260 HV, the maximum tensile strength is about 880 MPa and the elongation to failure is about 25 %. The Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analysis reveal a fine grain size with a majority austenite phase. The additive manufacturing process proposed in this study can be an attractive alternative for 3D printing of high precision metal components and can find application for rapid tooling in a range of industries such as medical and automotive among others.
摘要 I
致謝 III
目次 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 3
1.3 文獻回顧 6
1.3.1 金屬積層製造之發展 7
1.3.2 送線供料型積層製造技術 8
1.3.3 電弧式金屬積層製造 9
1.3.4 雷射式金屬積層製造 14
1.4 研究目的 17
1.5 研究方法 18
第二章 理論基礎 21
2.1 沉積方式 21
2.2 沉積關係式 23
2.3 重疊率關係式 23
第三章 實驗設備與方法 25
3.1 送線型雷射金屬積層製造設備 25
3.2 實驗材料 27
3.3 實驗設備 27
3.4 實驗規劃 34
3.5 實驗試片製備 36
第四章 實驗結果與討論 40
4.1 雷射參數轉換功率分析 40
4.2 沉積方式測試 43
4.3 單層單道參數分析 43
4.4 多層單道參數分析 57
4.5 單層多道參數分析 61
4.6 多層多道參數分析 64
4.6.1 沉積試片之拉伸強度分析 66
4.6.2 沉積試片之微硬度分析與金相組織觀察 72
4.6.3 沉積試片之電子背向散射繞射(EBSD)組織分析 74
4.7 歷年研究結果比較 81
第五章 結論與未來展望 85
5.1 結論 85
5.2 未來展望 86
參考文獻 88
附錄 - 論文原創性比對結果 94
作者簡介 95

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