(3.238.186.43) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/28 20:51
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:游子賢
研究生(外文):YU, TZU-HSIEN
論文名稱:台灣花蓮鄉村家戶灰塵中塑化劑之暴露探討
論文名稱(外文):Assessment of exposure to phthalates in rural house dust of Hualien, Taiwan
指導教授:尹立銘尹立銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):YIIN, Lih-Ming
口試委員:謝佳容蘇銘千
口試委員(外文):HSIEH, CHIA-JUNGSU, MING-CHIEN
口試日期:2020-07-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:慈濟大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:鄰苯二甲酸酯類塑化劑家戶特性生活習慣家戶灰塵
外文關鍵詞:Phthalateshome characteristicslife stylehabithousehold dust
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:29
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:1
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
研究背景與動機:塑化劑主要為軟化或液化材質的添加物,經常使用於塑料產品、化妝品、地板、牆壁等各產品中。塑化劑的使用以鄰苯二甲酸酯類(Phthalate Easters,PAEs)最為廣泛,且有部分的PAEs被視為環境荷爾蒙,會造成人體內分泌異常等健康問題。目前已有一些塑化劑的環境暴露研究提到,PAEs殘留於家戶環境中,恐造成居住者暴露的健康問題。本研究欲探討台灣花蓮鄉村地區家戶環境中PAEs塑化劑的暴露情形,以及與生活習慣及產品使用情形之關聯性。
研究方法: 本研究對象以花蓮農業鄉鎮之家戶為主,進行47戶室內灰塵採樣,以及問卷調查。樣本以乙酸乙酯萃取濃縮後,以氣相層析儀質譜儀分析台灣環境中5種常見PAEs塑化劑,包括DMP、DBP、DiBP、BBzP、DEHP。
結果: 室內採樣結果偵測率最高的PAEs塑化劑為DEHP(85%),第50百分位數濃度為78.92 ng/g;其次是DMP,偵測率為62%,第50百分位數濃度為106.2 ng/g。使用清潔劑清潔地板比沒有使用者,DMP高出47.69%(P=0.005),推測清潔劑中可能含DMP。家中存放保鮮膜產品比沒有存放者,以及家中使用紙杯飲水容器比沒有使用者, DiBP分別高出62.25%(P=0.001)及43.47%(P=0.008),可能是DiBP普遍存在此二項產品中。家戶地板使用磁磚比塑膠複合地板,以及家中使用塑膠瓶的習慣比沒有使用習慣者,BBzP分別高出49.48%(P=0.006)及42.61%(P=0.014),推測磁磚地板所使用黏著劑及塑膠瓶含BBzP。與其他PAEs塑化劑情況類似,DEHP殘留在較頻繁清潔地板習慣的家戶,有較高的趨勢(P=0.039),清潔地板有使用清潔劑與家中有使用塑膠飲水容器者,其DEHP分別高出38.68%(P=0.015)與34.17%(P=0.024)。
討論與結論:本研究中發現有許多生活習慣與產品,會影響PAEs塑化劑於環境中的殘留,因此建議家戶產品的選擇上應留意其內容成分,以及居家清掃時應適量使用清潔劑,方可降低PAEs塑化劑的暴露。
關鍵字:鄰苯二甲酸酯類塑化劑、家戶特性、生活習慣、家戶灰塵

Background: Plasticizers are additives used in plastic products, cosmetics, floors walls and other products for softening and liquefying purposes. Phthalate easters (PAEs) are the most widely used plasticizers, and some PAEs are regarded as environmental hormones which could cause health problems such as abnormal human endocrine. Currently, environmental exposure studies of plasticizers have mentioned that PAEs remaining in the household environments may cause health problems for residents. This
study intended to explore the exposure to PAEs in rural household environments of Hualian, Taiwan, and to examine the relationships with lifestyle habits and product usage.
Methods: This study conducted questionnaires and dust sampling in 47 rural houses
of Hualien, Taiwan. Dust samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 5 major PAEs (DEHP, DiBP, BBzP, DBP, DMP) that were prevalently used in Taiwan.
Results: DEHP had the highest detection rate (85%) of dust sample analysis, and the 50th percentile concentration was 78.92 ng/g. DMP was the second highest PAE in detection (62%) and the 50th percentile concentration was 106.21 ng/g. The multivariate regression analysis indicated that DMP in houses without using detergents to clean floors was 47.69% (P = 0.005) higher than that with using detergents, suggesting DMP present in the detergents. Homes with plastic wrap products or paper cups resulted in DiBP concentrations significantly higher than those without (62.25% [P = 0.001] and 43.47% [P = 0.008], respectively). It was likely that DiBP was used in either product. As for BBzP, the concentrations were 49.48% (P = 0.006) higher on tile flooring than on PVC flooring, suggesting that adhesives for tile flooring could contain more BBzP. Also, homes with use of plastic bottles had the concentrations of BBzP 42.61% (P = 0.014) higher than that in the homes without, indicating BBzP on the surfaces of bottles. Similarly, DEHP were found to be higher in concentration in the households using detergents to clean floors (38.68% [P = 0.015]) and using plastic containers for drinking (34.17% [P = 0.024]) than that found in the households that did not.
Discussion and conclusion: This study found a number of factors (e.g., life styles, habits) that were associated with PAE residue in house dust. In order to lower exposure to PAEs in the homes, we recommend that people should pay attention to contents in the products they purchase, and limit the use of detergents for home cleaning.

Keyword: Phthalates, home characteristics, life style, habit, household dust.

目錄
中文摘要 1
Abstract 2
表目錄 6
圖目錄 7
第一章 緒論 8
第一節 研究背景與動機 8
第二節 研究目的 9
第二章 文獻探討 12
第一節 鄰苯二甲酸類(PAEs)塑化劑 12
一、 定義、介紹 12
二、 暴露來源 13
三、 相關暴露因子 13
第二節 環境荷爾蒙 17
一、 環境荷爾蒙之流行病學 17
第三章 研究方法 20
第一節 研究架構 20
第二節 研究對象 20
第三節 採樣流程 20
第四節 實驗儀器與材料 22
第五節 採樣方法 23
一、 室內採樣 23
第六節 樣品前處理 25
第七節 儀器分析 26
一、 氣相層析儀設定參數 26
二、 偵測極限(LOQ) 27
第八節 資料統計分析 28
第三章 結果 29
第一節 PAEs塑化劑濃度結果 29
一、 室內採樣濃度結果 29
第二節 家戶問卷資料結果 30
一、 家戶特性與PAEs塑化劑檢出之關聯 30
第肆章 討論與結論 44
一、 鄰苯二甲酸塑化劑(PAEs)濃度之趨勢 44
二、 鄰苯二甲酸塑化劑(PAEs)與家戶特性、產品使用習慣之趨勢 45
第伍章 研究限制 47
參考文獻 48
附錄一、研究對象同意書 53
附錄二、花蓮慈濟醫院研究倫理委員會計畫審查許可書 56
附錄三、運用地理資訊系統探討農地參數與家戶灰塵殺蟲劑之關聯問卷 57


1.Rudel, R.A. and L.J. Perovich, Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air. Atmos Environ (1994), 2009. 43(1): p. 170-181.
2.Liang, Y. and Y. Xu, Improved method for measuring and characterizing phthalate emissions from building materials and its application to exposure assessment. Environ Sci Technol, 2014. 48(8): p. 4475-84.
3.Buckley, J. P., Palmieri, R. T., Matuszewski, J. M., et al., Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in pregnant women. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, 2012. 22(5): p. 468-75.
4.Carlstedt, F., B.A. Jonsson, and C.G. Bornehag, PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air, 2013. 23(1): p. 32-9.
5.Hauser, R. and A.M. Calafat, Phthalates and human health. Occup Environ Med, 2005. 62(11): p. 806-18.
6.Kemmlein, S., Emission of flame retardants from consumer products and building materials. Atmospheric Environ, 2003. 37: p. 5485-93.
7.Newton, S., U. Sellstrom, and C.A. de Wit, Emerging flame retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in indoor and outdoor media in Stockholm, Sweden. Environ Sci Technol, 2015. 49(5): p. 2912-20.
8.Xu, Y., E.A. Cohen Hubal, and J.C. Little, Predicting residential exposure to phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring: sensitivity, uncertainty, and implications for biomonitoring. Environ Health Perspect, 2010. 118(2): p. 253-8.
9.Xu, Y., E.A. Cohen Hubal, and J.C. Little, Predicting residential exposure to phthalate plasticizer emittedfrom vinyl flooring: a mechanistic analysis. Environ Health Perspect, 2009. 43: p. 2374-80.
10.Xu, Y. and J.C. Little, Predicting emissions of SVOCs from polymeric materials and their interaction with airborne particles. Environ Sci Technol, 2006. 40(2): p. 456-61.
11.Blanchard, O., Glorennec, P., Mercier, F., et al., Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air and settled dust in 30 French dwellings. Environ Sci Technol, 2014. 48(7): p. 3959-69.
12.Stefanidou, M., S. Athanaselis, and H. Spiliopoulou, Butyrylcholinesterase: biomarker for exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Intern Med J, 2009. 39(1): p. 57-60.
13.Høyer, B. B., Lenters, V., Giwercman, A., et al., Impact of Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Metabolites on Male Reproductive Function: a Systematic Review of Human Evidence. Curr Environ Health Rep, 2018. 5(1): p. 20-33.
14.Kay, V.R., M.S. Bloom, and W.G. Foster, Reproductive and developmental effects of phthalate diesters in males. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2014. 44(6): p. 467-98.
15.Kay, V.R., C. Chambers, and W.G. Foster, Reproductive and developmental effects of phthalate diesters in females. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2013. 43(3): p. 200-19.
16.Latini, G., Del Vecchio, A., Massaro, M., et al., Phthalate exposure and male infertility. Toxicology, 2006. 226(2-3): p. 90-8.
17.Martino-Andrade, A.J. and I. Chahoud, Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2010. 54(1): p. 148-57.
18.Matsumoto, M., M. Hirata-Koizumi, and M. Ema, Potential adverse effects of phthalic acid esters on human health: a review of recent studies on reproduction. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2008. 50(1): p. 37-49.
19.Zarean, M., Keikha, M., Poursafa, P., et al., A systematic review on the adverse health effects of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016. 23(24): p. 24642-24693.
20.Hwang, H. M., Park, E. K., Young, T. M., et al., Occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in indoor dust. Sci Total Environ, 2008. 404(1): p. 26-35.
21.Yuan, S. Y., Liu, C., Liao, C. S., et al. Occurrence and microbial degradation of phthalate esters in Taiwan river sediments. Chemosphere, 2002, 49.10: 1295-1299.
22.Jeon, S., K.T. Kim, and K. Choi, Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature. Sci Total Environ, 2016. 547: p. 441-446.
23.Ruthann, A.R., Phthalates, Alkylphenols, Insecticides, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Other Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Indoor Air and Dust. Environ Sci Technol, 2003. 37(20): p. 4543-53.
24.Bornehag, C.G., et al., Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics. Environ Health Perspect, 2005. 113(10): p. 1399-404.
25.Al Qasmi, N.N., H. Al-Thaiban, and M.I.H. Helaleh, Indoor phthalates from household dust in Qatar: implications for non-dietary human exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019. 26(1): p. 421-430.
26.Fry, D.M., Reproductive effects in birds exposed to insecticides and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect, 1995. 103: p. 165-71.
27.Weiss, J. M., Gustafsson, Å., Gerde, P., Bergman, Å., et al., Daily intake of phthalates, MEHP, and DINCH by ingestion and inhalation. Chemosphere, 2018. 208: p. 40-49.
28.Hsu, N. Y., Liu, Y. C., Lee, C. W., et al., Higher moisture content is associated with greater emissions of DEHP from PVC wallpaper. Environ Res, 2017. 152: p. 1-6.
29.Bi, C., Maestre, J. P., Li, H., et al., Phthalates and organophosphates in settled dust and HVAC filter dust of U.S. low-income homes: Association with season, building characteristics, and childhood asthma. Environ Int, 2018. 121(Pt 1): p. 916-930.
30.行政院環保署毒災防救管理系統, 鄰苯二甲酸毒災防救管理資訊系統. 20200716.
31.Helm, J. S., Nishioka, M., Brody, J. G., et al., Re: Measurement of endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals in hair products used by Black women. Environ Res, 2018.
32.Meltzer, D., Martinez–Arguelles, D. B., Campioli, E., et al., In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate targets ovarian theca cells and steroidogenesis in the adult female rat. Reprod Toxicol, 2015. 51: p. 47-56.
33.Hyun Kim, D., Min Choi, S., Soo Lim, D., et al., Risk assessment of endocrine disrupting phthalates and hormonal alterations in children and adolescents. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 2018. 81(21): p. 1150-1164.
34.Harley, K. G., Kogut, K., Madrigal, D. S., et al., Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environ Health Perspect, 2016. 124(10): p. 1600-1607.
35.Arcury, T. A., Lu, C., Chen, H., et al., Pesticides present in migrant farmworker housing in North Carolina. 2014. 57(3): p. 312-322.
36.Martínez, M. A., Rovira, J., Sharma, R. P., et al., Comparing dietary and non-dietary source contribution of BPA and DEHP to prenatal exposure: A Catalonia (Spain) case study. Environ Res, 2018. 166: p. 25-34.
37.Miao, Y., Wang, R., Lu, C., et al., Lifetime cancer risk assessment for inhalation exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017. 24(1): p. 312-320.
38.Hsu, J.Y., C.L. Shih, and P.C. Liao, Exposure Marker Discovery of Phthalates Using Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrom (Tokyo), 2017. 6(Spec Iss): p. S0062.
39.Huang, C. N., Chiou, Y. H., Cho, H. B., et al., Children's exposure to phthalates in dust and soil in Southern Taiwan: A study following the phthalate incident in 2011. Sci Total Environ, 2019. 696.
40.Sakhi, A. K., Cequier, E., Becher, R., et al., Concentrations of selected chemicals in indoor air from Norwegian homes and schools. Sci Total Environ, 2019. 674: p. 1-8.
41.Just, A. C., Miller, R. L., Perzanowski, M. S., et al., Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, 2015. 25(6): p. 574-9.
42.Bui, T. T., Giovanoulis, G., Cousins, A. P, et al. Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters. Sci Total Environ, 2016, 541: 451-467..
43.Bi, X., Yuan, S., Pan, X., et al., Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng, 2015. 50(14): p. 1428-39.
44.Aurela, B., H. Kulmala, and L. Soderhjelm, Phthalates in paper and board packaging and their migration into Tenax and sugar. Food Addit Contam, 1999. 16(12): p. 571-7.
45.Poças, M. F., Oliveira, J. C., Pereira, J. R., et al., Consumer exposure to phthalates from paper packaging: an integrated approach. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, 2010. 27(10): p. 1451-9.
46.Kiralan, M., Toptanci, İ., Yavuz, M., et al., Phthalates levels in cold-pressed oils marketed in Turkey. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020. 27(5): p. 5630-5635.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
無相關期刊
 
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔