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研究生:劉懿翎
研究生(外文):LIU, YI-LING
論文名稱:即時性生理回饋對電腦作業人員肩頸負荷之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of real-time biofeedback on VDT operators’ neck-shoulder workload
指導教授:陳協慶陳協慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN, HSIEH-CHING
口試委員:梁曉帆劉永平陳協慶
口試委員(外文):LIANG, XIAO-FANLIU, YONG-PINGCHEN, HSIEH-CHING
口試日期:2019-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:38
中文關鍵詞:VDT作業肩頸疼痛生理回饋
外文關鍵詞:VDT operationshoulder and neck painbiofeedback
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本研究目的在於探討使用視覺顯示來呈現電腦打字者的生理回饋,對其自主控制肩頸負荷的效果。研究將受試者提肩胛肌與斜方肌之肌電訊號大小,以相對之顏色即時回饋顯示於螢幕上,讓受試者得知自身打字時之肌肉負荷。受試者分為實驗組(22人)與對照組(20人),兩組受試者不重複,每一位受試者皆接受低壓力(低速一般打字)與中壓力(低速心算+打字)兩種等級的測試,測試的壓力等級順序採隨機指派,每種測試各進行一次九分鐘的打字測試。九分鐘測試又細分成前、中、後三段,每段各3分鐘,實驗組受試者在測試中段(4-6分鐘)時給予視覺回饋;對照組全程無使用視覺回饋。測試過程完整記錄打字測試過程受試者之肌電訊號以及頭部角度,測試後使用主觀不適問卷記錄該次測試身體各部位的不適程度。
研究結果顯示實驗組在兩種壓力下中段的提肩胛肌(低、中p<0.001, pair-t)與斜方肌(低:p<0.001、中:p=0.005, pair-t)的肌電訊號平均強度,以及頭部角速度(低:p=0.001、中:p=0.003, pair-t)、活動範圍(低:p=0.001、中:p=0.005, pair-t)皆明顯低於前段,表示視覺回饋可以有效地降低肌肉負荷;而兩種壓力下的中段斜方肌、提肩胛肌肌電訊號皆與後段無顯著差異。對照組實驗結果顯示在兩種壓力條件下,三段時間的肌電訊號平均強度皆無顯著差異,表示實驗組中段降低不是單純因為前段時間的學習效應,而是受到視覺回饋的影響,而這種影響可能有短暫的持續效用。
在有視覺回饋的情況下,受試者可以自主地維持較低的肌肉負荷與頭頸部活動,降低肩頸的負荷,但使用視覺回饋必然會佔用部分電腦作業視覺管道的需求,未來建議可以探討採用不同的回饋方式,讓電腦作業人員自主調整肩頸肌肉的張力以減緩肩頸痠痛的問題。
The purpose of this study utilizes visual display to present the physiological feedback of computer typists, and explore the effect of such measures on the autonomous control of their shoulder-neck workload. The EMG intensity of a participants' scapular and trapezius muscles was displayed on the screen in real-time feedback in relative colors so that the participant knew his/her muscle load when typing. Forty-two subjects who participated in this experimental study are divided into the experimental group (22 subjects) and the control group (20 subjects). Each subject received a low-pressure (low-speed general typing) and a medium-pressure (low-speed mental arithmetic + typing) tests. The pressure levels of the tests were randomly assigned, and each test was performed for a nine-minute typing test. The 9-minute test is further divided into three 3-minute sections. The visual biofeedback is provided to the experimental group but not the control group during the middle section test (4-6 minutes). The EMG and the head position angle are recorded throughout the entire test, and a questionnaire using a Borg CR10 scale to measure the degree of fatigue is conducted after each 9-minute test.
The experimental group showed significantly decreased EMG intensity in levator scapulae (p<0.001) and trapezius muscles (p<0.005) and significantly reduced head angular velocity (p<0.003) and range of motion (p<0.005) in the mid-section than in the first section at both low and medium pressure levels. However, no significant differences in muscle activities were observed between the mid-section and the last section under two pressure levels. Conversely, the control group showed no significant difference in the muscle activities between sections under any pressure level. The experimental results indicate the significant improvement in muscle activities and head movement during the mid-section is caused by the use of visual feedback, not by the learning effect. Moreover, the positive effect of biofeedback can last for a period of time.
With the visual biofeedback, participants’ muscle workload and the head-neck movement are both reduced so as to improve the VDT working posture. Nevertheless, the use of visual feedback will cost some visual capacity in VDT work. This study suggests it’s worth considering the use of different biofeedback pathway in the future for reducing the pain in workers’ neck and shoulder.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 電腦作業影響肩頸負荷的因素 4
2.2 生理回饋裝置 5
第三章 研究方法 8
3.1 實驗對象 8
3.2 實驗設備 9
3.2.1 工作站設計 9
3.2.2 生理負荷與角度量測 10
3.2.3 打字測試軟體 11
3.2.4 主觀評估量表 13
3.3 實驗設計 13
3.4 實驗流程 15
3.5 資料處理與分析 16
3.5.1 角度 16
3.5.2 肌電訊號 16
3.5.3 錯誤率 17
3.5.4 統計分析 17
第四章 研究結果 18
4.1 實驗組 18
4.1.1 肌電訊號 19
4.1.2 角度參數 20
4.1.3 錯誤率 21
4.1.4 各部位主觀疲勞不適程度 22
4.2 對照組 23
第五章 討論 24
5.1 視覺回饋對肩頸負荷之影響 24
5.2 視覺回饋對頭部姿勢之影響 29
5.3 回饋機制下的調整動作 29
第六章 結論 31
參考文獻 32
附錄A 38
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