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研究生:吳承軒
研究生(外文):WU, CHENG-HSUAN
論文名稱:結合精密地形於高效能淹水模擬之研究
論文名稱(外文):High Performance Flood Simulation with Precise Digital Terrain Model
指導教授:張哲豪張哲豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHANG, CHE-HAO
口試委員:楊松岳吳祥禎許至璁張哲豪
口試委員(外文):YANG, SONG-YUEWU, SHIANG-JENHSU, CHIH-TSUNGCHANG, CHE-HAO
口試日期:2019-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:土木工程系土木與防災碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:高解析度數值地形模型高效能淹水模擬SOBEK
外文關鍵詞:High-resolution Digital Elevation ModelHigh Performance Flood SimulationSOBEK
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現階段已有多個縣市發展高效能二維淹水即時模擬,為滿足防災作業的每小時預報未來三小時淹水情形之時間強度,模式中二維漫地流模式應用之數值高程模型多為20m與40m解析度。隨著計算設備的演進,在淹水模式上使用精密地形逐漸成為趨勢,使用精密地形時有很多細節必須被考慮,水利數值地形模型(HyDEM)的概念因而被提出,即保留地表上任何會影響水體流動的物件,去除水體能穿透之地表物並以地面高程表示,以利水利模型模擬時能更貼近真實現況。然而淹水模擬在使用精密地形的情況下,往往需要冗長的運算時間,也因此HyDEM尚未應用於即時預報上,如何在有限的硬體資源與軟體限制下,平衡運算時間與淹水預報時效性是必須面對的課題。
在二維淹水模式中網格總數是影響模式運算速度的關鍵之一,而決定網格數量的因素為運算範圍及網格解析度,本研究以提高模擬精度為優先考量,選擇由調整運算範圍來控制網格數量,如將流域全範圍的網格解析度提升會需要龐大的運算資源,需要較多的運算時間,若僅針對易淹水區域進行局部高解析度網格加密,其他區域保持原有解析度,就可以減少運算量,縮短運算時間。
本研究提出調適性分區演算法,藉由高低解析度的網格搭配,使整體模擬精度提高,並以多組模擬淹水次數及淹水深度為門檻值,透過調整門檻值決定加密範圍大小,將運算時間控制在限定時間內。針對桃園市東門溪流域之一二維耦合模式進行實驗,透過多場淹水數據分析流域中之淹水熱區,運用SOBEK淹水模式中的多重網格功能針對淹水熱區進行精密地型應用,找尋在何種精密地形分區配置下能將整體運算時間控制於符合預報時效性之時間內。成果顯示運算時間確實有隨著門檻值的調整而變化,說明可以利用此方法,找出不同使用情境下適合的地形配置。

Today, high Performance Flood Simulation have developed in many cities. In order to hourly forecast flooding for next three hours, the resolution of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Flood module are usually 20m and 40m. With the evolution of computing devices, there is a tendency for Flooding Simulation with precision terrain. Hydro Digital Elevation Model (HyDEM) has been proposed to consider detailed terrain. Objects affecting water flooding on the ground will be retained, while those allowing water to penetrate will be shown as the elevation of the ground to make HyDEM much closer to reality. However, flooding simulation often requires lengthy computing time when using precise terrain, HyDEM has not been applied to real-time flood forecasting. Balancing computing time and flooding forecasting timeliness with limited hardware resources and software limitation is important.
In the 2D flood module, the amount of grids, which is influenced by calculation area and grid resolution, is a key factor in computing time. In this study, the accuracy of the simulation is taken as a priority through adjusting calculating area to control the number of grids. Instead of using high resolution DEM in the entire basin, partial high resolution DEM in high risk area combine with low resolution DEM, will reduce lot of computation and save computing time.
In this study, adaptive partitioning algorithm was proposed for improving simulation accuracy by the combination of high and low resolution of grids. Size of precise digital terrain area was resolved by changing threshold value, which is determined simulating flooding frequency and depth, to make computing time within a limited time. Simulating numerous flooding with flooding module in Dongmen River Basin in Taoyuan City, high-risk flooding areas are defined. With the multi-grid function which was used in high-risk flooding areas in SOBEK, configuration of precise terrain which could keep the computing time within the forecasting timeliness would be found out. The results show that the computing time vary with threshold value, indicating that this method can be used to find the appropriate terrain configuration in different situation.

摘 要 i
Abstract iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.2.1 精密地形應用於淹水模式 2
1.2.2 二維淹水模式效能精進 3
1.3 研究流程與架構 4
第二章 精密地形特性 6
2.1 水利數值地形模型 6
2.1.1 阻擋水流構造物 6
2.1.2 水道區域線 8
2.2 精密與非精密地形之差異 10
2.3 運算效能 13
2.3.1 SOBEK淹水模式 13
2.3.2 精密地型運算效能差異 13
第三章 多重網格分區 21
3.1 地形分區概念 21
3.2 運算效能評估 22
3.3 研究區域概況 25
3.4 淹水熱區 26
3.4.1 情境降雨模擬 26
3.4.2 模擬成果統計 28
3.5 淹水熱區分區配置 30
第四章 調適性分區演算法 36
4.1 多重解析度組合 36
4.2 多重解析度DEM配置 40
4.3 調適性分區機制 45
4.4 調適性分區演算法成果 50
第五章 結論與建議 76
5.1 結論 76
5.2 後續研究方向與建議 77
參考文獻 78


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7.Qiuhua Liang, Guozhi Du, Jim W. Hall, Alistair G. L. Borthwick, 2008, “Flood Inundation Modeling with an Adaptive Quadtree GridShallow Water Equation Solver”, JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING.
8.Justine He ́nonin, Hongtao Ma, Zheng-Yu Yang, Johan Hartnack, Karsten Havnø, Philippe Gourbesville, Ole Mark, 2015, “Citywide multi-grid urban flood modelling: the July 2012 flood in Beijing”, Urban Water Journal.
9.Che-Hao Chang, Ming-Ko Chung, Song-Yue Yang, Chih-Tsung Hsu and Shiang-Jen Wu, 2018, “Improving the Computational Performance of an Operational Two-Dimensional Real-Time Flooding Forecasting System by Active-Cell and Multi-Grid Methods in Taichung City, Taiwan”, Water.
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