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研究生:許馥惠
研究生(外文):Hsu, Fu-Hui
論文名稱:大學生英語閱讀理解能力之預測模式:再探閱讀簡易觀點
論文名稱(外文):Prediction of Reading Comprehension in College EFL Learners: Revisit Simple View of Reading
指導教授:梁雲霞梁雲霞引用關係胡潔芳胡潔芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang, Yun-HsiaHu, Chieh-Fang
口試日期:2019-07-23
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:臺北市立大學
系所名稱:教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:閱讀簡易觀點閱讀理解英語為外語之學習者大學生
外文關鍵詞:simple view of readingreading comprehensionEFL learnerscollege students
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根據「閱讀簡易觀點模式」(Simple View of Reading),閱讀理解可被簡單劃分為兩項不同的語言處理能力:認字解碼能力與聽力理解能力。雖然目前已有相當多的母語學習與第二語學習的研究結果支持此閱讀簡易觀點,但目前還沒有研究明確指出此模式是否適用於預測以英語為外語的大學生的閱讀理解。因此,本研究將檢測此閱讀簡易觀點模式在以英語為外語的大學生身上的適用性,同時提出並檢測另一個「以英語為外語的閱讀簡易觀點模式」(EFL simple view of reading)。這個「以英語為外語的閱讀簡易觀點模式」重新架構EFL大學生閱讀理解預測變項,採用原本被「閱讀簡易觀點模式」忽略但對EFL閱讀理解重要的「低階文字內分析能力」(認字解碼能力及字形知識)與「高階語言知識」(單字量及語法知識)以預測EFL大學生的閱讀理解。

本研究採量化研究。研究資料收集自280個以英語為外語的大學生。資料收集時間起於2015年9月至2017年6月結束。本研究採方便取樣。研究參與者來自研究者大學英文課堂(分別開設於兩所位於北臺灣之大專院校)。本研究使用六個測驗工具測量大學生的認字解碼能力、字形知識、單字量、語法知識、聽力理解能力、閱讀理解能力。

階層迴歸分析結果顯示:「閱讀簡易觀點模式」與「以英語為外語的閱讀簡易觀點模式」皆適用於以英語為外語的台灣大學生,兩者皆具有相似的閱讀理解預測解釋力(分別為64%和67%)。然而,具有顯著預測力的變項只有:(1)「閱讀簡易觀點模式」中的聽力理解能力;(2)「以英語為外語的閱讀簡易觀點模式」中的高階語言知識。另外,經由探索式資料分析(逐步迴歸分析),本研究發現一個超越以上兩個預測模式解釋力的「以英語為外語的最佳閱讀預測模式」,其對閱讀理解的解釋力高達74%。此最佳閱讀預測模式是「閱讀簡易觀點模式」與「以英語為外語的閱讀簡易觀點模式」的綜合版,包含了兩個模式中具有顯著預測力的預測變項:聽力理解能力、語法知識、單字量。後續分析顯示,即便「低階文字內分析能力」(認字解碼能力及字形知識)已無獨特的閱讀理解預測力,對EFL大學生而言,低落的認字解碼能力及字形知識仍是他們EFL閱讀理解能力的限制因子。研究者根據研究結果,進一步討論並提出未來研究建議。
According to the Simple View of Reading, reading comprehension is predicted by two separate processes: decoding and listening comprehension. It has been supported by numerous studies in native language learners and second language learners. However, less is known about its applicability to predicting reading comprehension in college learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). In addition to investigating the applicability of the Simple View of Reading in college EFL learners, the present study proposed and examined an EFL reading model, in which EFL reading comprehension was predicted by lower level word analysis ability (decoding, orthographic knowledge) and higher level linguistic knowledge (vocabulary size, syntactic knowledge). The EFL model re-conceptualized reading comprehension by including the abilities underrepresented in the standard Simple View of Reading but critical to success in EFL reading comprehension.

A quantitative methodology was adopted for this study whereby data was collected from 280 college EFL learners from September 2015 to June 2017. This study used a convenient sampling method and the participants were from the researcher’s English class from two universities in northern Taiwan. Six measures were administered to measure the participants’ decoding ability, orthographic knowledge, vocabulary size, syntactic knowledge, listening comprehension and reading comprehension.

The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that the standard Simple View of Reading and the EFL simple view of reading model gave a reasonable fit to the data. Both models accounted for similar variance (64% and 67%) in EFL reading comprehension of college students in Taiwan. However, the significant predictors in the standard Simple View of Reading included listening comprehension only and those in the EFL reading model included higher linguistic knowledge only. Furthermore, in an exploratory analysis when all the measures were entered into a stepwise regression analysis, a best-fit model emerged, accounting for 74% of the variance in EFL college students’ reading comprehension. This model is a hybrid model incorporating the indicators from the standard and the EFL models, that is, listening comprehension and higher level linguistic knowledge. Further analyses indicated that although lower level word analysis abilities (decoding and orthographic knowledge) failed as unique predictors of the variance in EFL college students’ reading comprehension, weakness in either of these abilities was nonetheless a constraining factor for some EFL college students. According to the findings, implications and future research directions were provided.
Table of Contents
Abstract i
摘要 iii
Table of Contents v
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Motivation and Background 1
1.2 Research Purposes and Research Questions 4
1.3 Definition of Terms 6
1.3.1 The Simple View of Reading (the SVR) 6
1.3.2 The EFL Simple View of Reading 6
1.3.3 Decoding 7
1.3.4 Orthographic Knowledge 7
1.3.5 Vocabulary Size 8
1.3.6 Syntactic Knowledge 8
1.3.7 Lower Level Word Analysis Ability 8
1.3.8 Higher Level Linguistic Knowledge 9
1.3.9 EFL Learners 9
1.3.10 The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 9
Chapter 2 Literature Review 11
2.1 The Simple View of Reading (SVR) 11
2.1.1 What is the SVR 11
2.1.2 The Relative Importance of Decoding and Listening Comprehension in L1 Reading Comprehension 13
2.1.3 The Evidence Supporting the SVR 14
2.1.4 The Counter Point of View toward the SVR 15
2.1.5 The Applicability of the SVR in College EFL Learners 16
2.2 Foreign Language Listening Comprehension and Reading Comprehension Development 17
2.2.1 Different Development Processes of L1 and Foreign Language 17
2.2.2 Challenging Foreign Language Listening Comprehension 18
2.2.3 EFL Learning in Taiwan 20
2.3 Predictors of EFL Reading Comprehension 21
2.3.1 Lower Level Word Analysis Ability and EFL Reading Comprehension 21
2.3.1.1 Decoding 24
2.3.1.2 Orthographic Knowledge 30
2.3.2 Higher Level Linguistic Knowledge and Reading Comprehension 35
2.3.2.1 Vocabulary Size 38
2.3.2.2 Syntactic Knowledge 43
2.4 The EFL Simple View of Reading 47
Chapter 3 Methodology 49
3.1 Participants 49
3.2 Measures 49
3.2.1 Decoding 49
3.2.2 Orthographic Knowledge 50
3.2.3 Vocabulary Size 51
3.2.4 Syntactic Knowledge 52
3.2.5 Listening Comprehension 53
3.2.6 Reading Comprehension 53
3.3 Procedures 54
3.4 Data Analyses 56
3.4.1 Research Question 1: Standard Simple View of Reading 56
3.4.2 Research Question 2: EFL Simple View of Reading 56
3.4.3 Research Question 3: Adding Listening Comprehension to the EFL Model 56
3.4.4 Research Question 4: Exploring Best-fit Models 57
Chapter 4 Results 59
4.1 Descriptive Statistics 59
4.2 Standard Simple View of Reading 61
4.3 EFL Simple View of Reading 64
4.4 Adding Listening Comprehension to the EFL Reading Model 66
4.5 Explore Best-fit Models 68
4.5.1 A Best-fit Model for College EFL Learners 68
4.5.2 A Best-fit Model for Less-skilled Readers 69
4.6 Additional Analyses 71
4.6.1 Additional Analyses on Decoding and Orthographic Knowledge 71
4.6.2 Additional Analyses on Overlapped Predictors of Reading Comprehension and Listening Comprehension 73

Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 75
5.1 Standard Simple View of Reading in the EFL Context 76
5.1.1 Decoding 77
5.1.2 Listening Comprehension 79
5.1.3 The Product Component of the SVR 81
5.2 The EFL Simple View of Reading 84
5.2.1 Lower Level Word Analysis Abilities 85
5.2.2 Higher Level Linguistic Knowledge 86
5.2.3 The Product Component of the EFL Model 87
5.3 Adding Listening Comprehension into the EFL Model 87
5.4 A Best-fit Model for College EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension 89
5.5 Conclusion 89
5.6 Implications and Suggestions 90
References 93
Appendix 107
Appendix A The Pseudoword Matching Task 107
Appendix B The Word-Likeness Task 108
Appendix C The Syntactic Knowledge Task 109
Appendix D Item Samples of the Vocabulary Size Test 110
Appendix E Samples of the Listening Comprehension Test 111
Appendix F A Reading Comprehension Test Sample 112
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