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研究生(外文):Hsieh, Min-Jung
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Performance, Glucose Tolerance, and Body Composition after High-Intensity Interval Training in Obese Young Women
指導教授(外文):Hou, Chien-Wen
外文關鍵詞:OGTTinsulin sensitivitytestosteroneendotoxin
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Background: Global obesity rates continue to rise, especially in Asia, and females are known to be at an increased risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently proposed as a time efficient strategy for fat loss outcomes, while caffeine is a dietary ingredients recommended for its thermogenic and weight loss, appetite control and ergogenic effects. The present study investigates whether an HIIT intervention combined with caffeine is effective in improving body composition, glycemic control, hormonal, cardiorespiratory, and anaerobic capacity outcomes in obese young female participants. Methods: Twenty-four obese Taiwanese females aged 18-30 years were recruited and randomly assigned to placebo (HIIT-PLA) or caffeine (HIIT-CAF) group, and the dose are both 3 mg.kg-1.BW-1, given one hour prior to HIIT. All subjects performed HIIT three times per week for 8 weeks (10 × 60-s cycling efforts at 90% maximal heart rate, 60-s recovery). Anthropometric, body composition, glycemic control, hormones, cardiorespiratory, and anaerobic capacity were measured at baseline before commencing the training and after the training completion. Results: Both HIIT-CAF and HIIT-PLA groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage (BF%) and testosterone, and significant improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and anaerobic capacity. Differential improvement was found for insulin sensitivity, glucose control, and endotoxin, in which HIIT elevated both glucose and insulin responses significantly, and a trend toward increase in endotoxin post the intervention in the HIIT-PLA, whereas suppressed them in the HIIT-CAF group. No significant change was found in BMI or lipid profile (HDL-C and TG) in either condition. Conclusion: HIIT improves cardiorespiratory, anaerobic fitness, and reduces BF% and testosterone. However, adverse HIIT-induced endotoxic and insulin sensitivity responses, which may be related to hormonal responses, can may be ameliorated by caffeine intake in young females with obesity.
ORIGINAL STATEMENT………………………...…………..…………ii
VERIFICATION LETTER…………..………………………………….iii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………...…………………………..iv
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………….…………………………vi
LIST OF TABLES………………………………….…………………….xi
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………….…………………..xii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………..………………….xiii
CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND………………………………………...1
2.1 Obesity problem……………………………………….………..3
2.2 Gut microbiota and health……………………………………….4
2.3 Caffeine…………………………………………………………5
2.3.1 Caffeine source and intake……………………….………5
2.3.2 Caffeine metabolism……………………………………..6
2.3.3 Caffeine and body composition………………………….7
2.3.4 Caffeine as an ergogenic aid…………………………….9
2.4 HIIT……………………………………………………………11
3.1 Study design and participants……………………..……………14
3.2 Experiment procedures………………………………………...14
3.2.1 Baseline assessment…………………………………….15
3.2.2 Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)…………………….15
3.2.3 Hormones, endotoxins, and lipid profiles tests...………..15
3.2.4 Cardiorespiratory capacity assessment…………………16
3.2.5 Anaerobic capacity test……………………………..…..16
3.2.6 Supplementation protocol……………………………....16
3.2.7 HIIT protocol……………….…………………………..17
3.2.8 Post intervention measurements………………………..17
3.3 Data analysis and statistics……………………………………..17
4.1 Body composition and lipid profile outcomes……………..…...18
4.2 Metabolic outcomes of glucose and insulin……………………19
4.3 Hormones: endotoxins, testosterone and cortisol outcomes……22
4.4 Obesity secondary outcomes of cardiorespiratory and anaerobic capacity……………………………………………………………………25
5.1 Main finding……………………………………..…………….27
5.2 Body composition and lipid profile outcomes……...…………..27
5.3 Metabolic outcomes of glucose and insulin……………………29
5.4 Hormones: endotoxins, testosterone and cortisol outcomes……30
5.5 Obesity secondary outcomes of cardiorespiratory and anaerobic capacity……………………………………………………………………33
5.6 Conclusion……………………………………………………..34
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