(3.227.235.183) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/20 08:53
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張筑鈞
研究生(外文):Jwu-Jiun Chang
論文名稱:年齡對於社會認知的影響
論文名稱(外文):Aging changes in the Implicit/Explicit Moral Attitudes and Neural Underpinnings of Moral Behavior
指導教授:鄭雅薇鄭雅薇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yawei Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:道德判斷年齡
外文關鍵詞:moral judgmentaging
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:51
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
大量的神經影像學和大腦病變研究表明,我們的道德是來自於認知子系統以及情感子系統的整合。雖然已經有研究證實基於意圖的道德判斷會在我們年紀的增長後產生改變,但是基於意圖的道德判斷只屬於理性子系統的範疇,他們並未考量道德判斷其實還是會被情感因子所影響,也還未看到有人通過這種雙向整合的系統來觀察道德在年齡上的變化。而這種雙向整合的道德系統我們利用外顯(理性系統)以及內隱(情感系統)道德態度去測量,我們假設內隱的道德態度會因為年紀的增長而變化,並且道德行為的神經相關性也會隨著年齡的增長而改變。我們分析了31位年輕成年人以及32位年長者,在外顯以及內隱的道德態度上都發現有顯著的不同。而磁振造影掃描的實驗,讓不同年齡想像進行幫助或傷害他人的道德行為,我們也觀察到不同年齡在進行不同道德行為時理性與情感腦區的差異。結果表明理性的子系統會因為年紀的增長而減弱,情緒子系統則相對的變得比較突出。
A substantial body of neuroimaging and lesion studies have indicated that morality arises from the integration of cognitive and affective subsystems. Although previous studies have been confirmed that intention-based moral judgments will change within aging, none have yet to examine it to test it through cognitive and emotional subsystems. Analyzing Thirty-one younger adults and thirty-two older adults, who varied in self-report justice sensitivity inventory (JSI) and implicit moral attitudes (mIAT), we scanned them under the fMRI while they blamed or praised morally-laden scenarios in first-person perspective. We hypothesize that mIAT scores would change with aging, and that the neural correlates of moral behavior would also change according to age. Results shows that rational subsystem will be blunted for aging, and the affective subsystem is relatively prominent.
Abstract i
中文摘要 ii
Contents iii
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES vi
CHAPTER1 — INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Dual process of moral judgment 2
1.2 The developmental morality in Adults 4
1.3 Moral attitude: explicit & implicit 7
1.4 The Aim of the Study 8
CHAPTER2 — METHOD 10
2.1 Participant and Procedure 11
2.2 Data selected – without dementia and depression 12
2.3 Explicit Moral Attitude : Justice Sensitivity Inventory 12
2.4 Implicit Moral attitude : Morality Implicit Association Task 13
2.4.1 Implicit Moral attitude algorithm 15
2.5 Subjective Moral Judgement : Moral Dilemma 16
2.6 Moral action task: MRI Scanning 17
2.7 Moral Actions: Blame & Praise Rating 18
2.8 functional MRI scanning 18
2.9 MRI image processing 19
CHAPTER3 — RESULTS 21
3.1 Behavior Results 22
3.1.1 Moral Dilemmas 22
3.1.2 Explicit moral attitudes 22
3.1.3 Implicit moral attitudes 23
3.1.4 The moral action evaluation in different age 25
3.2 fMRI results 25
3.2.1 Neuro activation in the moral scenario 25
3.2.2 Age difference to neural response with different moral action 26
3.2.3 The neural correlates for aging mIAT scores 26
CHAPTER4 — DISCUSSION 28
4.1 Age effect on the implicit and explicit moral attitude 29
4.2 Neural activation in the moral action 30
CHAPTER5 — CONCLUTION 33
CHAPTER6 — REFERENCE 35
FIGURE 42
TABLE 46
APPENDIX 52


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Z score latencies means and Standard Deviations for Implicit Attitudes
47

Table 2. Simple main effect of Congruency with Age group
47

Table 3. Helping effect whole brain analysis in Older adults
47

Table 4. Helping effect whole brain analysis in Younger adults
48

Table 5. Harming effect whole brain analysis in Older alders
48

Table 6. Harming effect whole brain analysis in Younger adults
49

Table 7. Neuro activation differences in Helping action between age group
49

Table 8. Neuro activation differences in Harming action between age group
50

Table9. Helping moral actions correlate with mIAT score
50

Table10. Harming moral actions correlate with mIAT score
51



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. The procedure of experiment in each session. 11
Figure 2. The five sequences in moral Implicit Association Task. 14
Figure 3. The interaction between age and congruency. 24
Figure 4. moral dilemma score between Younger and Older Adults. 43
Figure 5. JSI score between Younger and Older Adults. 43
Figure 6. Raw data of mIAT score between Younger and Older Adults. 44
Figure 7. mIAT Z score transform between Younger and Older Adults. 44
Figure 8. moral evaluation differences between Younger and Older Adults. 45
陳學志, 李威震, 周泰安, & 卓淑玲. (2002). 以內隱聯結測驗< IAT> 測量國人自尊的可行性研究. 測驗年刊, 49(2), 217-234.
Akitsuki, Y., & Decety, J. (2009). Social context and perceived agency affects empathy for pain: an event-related fMRI investigation. Neuroimage, 47(2), 722-734.
Armon, C., & Dawson, T. L. (1997). Developmental trajectories in moral reasoning across the life span. Journal of moral education, 26(4), 433-453.
Arutyunova, K. R., Alexandrov, Y. I., & Hauser, M. D. (2016). Sociocultural influences on moral judgments: East–West, male–female, and young–old. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1334.
Bos, K. (2007). Hot cognition and social justice judgments: The combined influence of cognitive and affective factors on the justice judgment process.
Bucciarelli, M., Khemlani, S., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2008). The psychology of moral reasoning. Judgment and Decision making, 3(2), 121.
Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 4(6), 215-222.
Bzdok, D., Schilbach, L., Vogeley, K., Schneider, K., Laird, A. R., Langner, R., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Structure and Function, 217(4), 783-796.
Calder, A. J., Lawrence, A. D., & Young, A. W. (2001). Neuropsychology of fear and loathing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(5), 352.
Chen, Y.-C., Chen, C.-C., Decety, J., & Cheng, Y. (2014). Aging is associated with changes in the neural circuits underlying empathy. Neurobiology of aging, 35(4), 827-836.
Cima, M., Tonnaer, F., & Lobbestael, J. (2007). Moral emotions in predatory and impulsive offenders using implicit measures. Netherlands journal of psychology, 63(4), 133-142.
Cushman, F., Sheketoff, R., Wharton, S., & Carey, S. (2013). The development of intent-based moral judgment. Cognition, 127(1), 6-21.
Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2007). The role of the right temporoparietal junction in social interaction: how low-level computational processes contribute to meta-cognition. The Neuroscientist, 13(6), 580-593.
Decety, J., Michalska, K. J., & Akitsuki, Y. (2008). Who caused the pain? An fMRI investigation of empathy and intentionality in children. Neuropsychologia, 46(11), 2607-2614.
Decety, J., Michalska, K. J., & Kinzler, K. D. (2011). The contribution of emotion and cognition to moral sensitivity: a neurodevelopmental study. Cerebral cortex, 22(1), 209-220.
Decety, J., & Porges, E. C. (2011). Imagining being the agent of actions that carry different moral consequences: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 49(11), 2994-3001.
Decety, J., & Wheatley, T. (2015). The moral brain: A multidisciplinary perspective: MIT Press.
Decety, J., & Yoder, K. J. (2016). Empathy and motivation for justice: Cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others. Social Neuroscience, 11(1), 1-14.
Edele, A., Dziobek, I., & Keller, M. (2013). Explaining altruistic sharing in the dictator game: The role of affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and justice sensitivity. Learning and individual differences, 24, 96-102.
Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual review of psychology, 51(1), 665-697.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Champion, C. (2004). Empathy-related responding: Moral, social, and socialization correlates.
Faust, M. E., Balota, D. A., Spieler, D. H., & Ferraro, F. R. (1999). Individual differences in information-processing rate and amount: implications for group differences in response latency. Psychological bulletin, 125(6), 777.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of psychiatric research, 12(3), 189-198.
Forbes, C. E., & Grafman, J. (2010). The role of the human prefrontal cortex in social cognition and moral judgment. Annual review of neuroscience, 33, 299-324.
Greene, J. D., Morelli, S. A., Lowenberg, K., Nystrom, L. E., & Cohen, J. D. (2008). Cognitive load selectively interferes with utilitarian moral judgment. Cognition, 107(3), 1144-1154.
Greene, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Engell, A. D., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44(2), 389-400. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.027
Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293(5537), 2105-2108. doi:10.1126/science.1062872
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(6), 1464.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of personality and social psychology, 85(2), 197.
Gubbins, E., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2014). Dual processes of emotion and reason in judgments about moral dilemmas. Thinking & Reasoning, 20(2), 245-268. doi:10.1080/13546783.2013.877400
Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4), 814.
Harenski, C. L., & Hamann, S. (2006). Neural correlates of regulating negative emotions related to moral violations. Neuroimage, 30(1), 313-324.
Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1369-1385.
Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., O'Brien, L. T., Greenwald, A. G., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). Using the implicit association test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions. Psychology and aging, 17(3), 482.
Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Singh, V. (2011). Perspectives from social and affective neuroscience on the design of digital learning technologies New Perspectives on Affect and Learning Technologies (pp. 233-241): Springer.
Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D. A., Knobe, J., & Bloom, P. (2009). Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays. Emotion, 9(3), 435.
Isen, A. M., & Levin, P. F. (1972). Effect of feeling good on helping: cookies and kindness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 21(3), 384.
Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization: Rand McNally.
Kohlberg, L. (1971). Stages of moral development. Moral education, 1, 23-92.
Luo, Q., Nakic, M., Wheatley, T., Richell, R., Martin, A., & Blair, R. J. R. (2006). The neural basis of implicit moral attitude—an IAT study using event-related fMRI. Neuroimage, 30(4), 1449-1457.
Maddock, R. J. (1999). The retrosplenial cortex and emotion: new insights from functional neuroimaging of the human brain. Trends in neurosciences, 22(7), 310-316.
Margoni, F., Geipel, J., Hadjichristidis, C., & Surian, L. (2018). Moral judgment in old age: Evidence for an intent-to-outcome shift. Experimental psychology, 65(2), 105.
Midlarsky, E., Kahana, E., Corley, R., Nemeroff, R., & Schonbar, R. A. (1999). Altruistic moral judgment among older adults. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 49(1), 27-41.
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Bramati, I. E., & Grafman, J. (2002). Functional Networks in Emotional Moral and Nonmoral Social Judgments. Neuroimage, 16(3 Pt 1), 696-703. doi:10.1006/nimg.2002.1118
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Eslinger, P. J., Bramati, I. E., Mourão-Miranda, J. n., Andreiuolo, P. A., & Pessoa, L. (2002). The neural correlates of moral sensitivity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basic and moral emotions. Journal of neuroscience, 22(7), 2730-2736. doi:20026214
Moll, J., & Schulkin, J. (2009). Social attachment and aversion in human moral cognition. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(3), 456-465.
Moll, J., Zahn, R., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Krueger, F., & Grafman, J. (2005). Opinion: the neural basis of human moral cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(10), 799-809. doi:10.1038/nrn1768
Moran, J. M., Jolly, E., & Mitchell, J. P. (2012). Social-cognitive deficits in normal aging. Journal of neuroscience, 32(16), 5553-5561.
Mui, A. C. (1996). Geriatric Depression Scale as a community screening instrument for elderly Chinese immigrants. International Psychogeriatrics, 8(3), 445-458.
Nosek, B. A., & Hansen, J. J. (2008). The associations in our heads belong to us: Searching for attitudes and knowledge in implicit evaluation. Cognition & Emotion, 22(4), 553-594.
Nosek, B. A., Hawkins, C. B., & Frazier, R. S. (2011). Implicit social cognition: From measures to mechanisms. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 15(4), 152-159.
Perkins, A. M., Leonard, A. M., Weaver, K., Dalton, J. A., Mehta, M. A., Kumari, V., . . . Ettinger, U. (2013). A dose of ruthlessness: Interpersonal moral judgment is hardened by the anti-anxiety drug lorazepam. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 612.
Perugini, M., & Leone, L. (2009). Implicit self-concept and moral action. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 747-754.
Perugini, M., Richetin, J., & Zogmaister, C. (2010). Prediction of behavior. Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory, and applications, 10, 255-278.
Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child (1932). New York: The Free.
Post, S. G. (2005). Altruism, happiness, and health: It’s good to be good. International journal of behavioral medicine, 12(2), 66-77.
Rudman, L. A. (2004). Sources of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(2), 79-82.
Saxe, R., Schulz, L. E., & Jiang, Y. V. (2006). Reading minds versus following rules: Dissociating theory of mind and executive control in the brain. Social Neuroscience, 1(3-4), 284-298.
Schmitt, M., Baumert, A., Gollwitzer, M., & Maes, J. (2010). The justice sensitivity inventory: Factorial validity, location in the personality facet space, demographic pattern, and normative data. Social Justice Research, 23(2-3), 211-238.
Schmitt, M., Gollwitzer, M., Maes, J., & Arbach, D. (2005). Justice sensitivity: assessment and location in the personality space. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(3), 202.
Shackman, A. J., Salomons, T. V., Slagter, H. A., Fox, A. S., Winter, J. J., & Davidson, R. J. (2011). The integration of negative affect, pain and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(3), 154.
Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 58, 345-372.
Teachman, B. A., & Woody, S. R. (2003). Automatic processing in spider phobia: Implicit fear associations over the course of treatment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1), 100.
Turiel, E. (1983). The development of social knowledge: Morality and convention: Cambridge University Press.
Van Bavel, J. J., FeldmanHall, O., & Mende-Siedlecki, P. (2015). The neuroscience of moral cognition: from dual processes to dynamic systems. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 167-172. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.08.009
Wilson, J. Q. (1993). The moral sense. American Political Science Review, 87(1), 1-11.
Yoder, K. J., & Decety, J. (2014). The Good, the bad, and the just: justice sensitivity predicts neural response during moral evaluation of actions performed by others. J Neurosci, 34(12), 4161-4166. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4648-13.2014
Young, L., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., & Saxe, R. (2007). The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(20), 8235-8240.
Young, L., & Koenigs, M. (2007). Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. British medical bulletin, 84(1), 69-79.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
無相關期刊
 
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔