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研究生:王凱裕
研究生(外文):WANG, KAI-YU
論文名稱:以多相機為基礎之 3D 數位影像相關法軟硬體實作應用於彈性物體變形量量測
論文名稱(外文):Software and Hardware Implementation of a Multi-camera Based 3D Digital-image-correlation Method for Deformation Measurement of Elastic Objects
指導教授:劉偉名劉偉名引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU, WEI-MIN
口試委員:王坤卿藍崑展許巍嚴劉偉名
口試委員(外文):WANG, KUN-CHINGLAN, KUN-CHANHSU, WEI-YENLIU, WEI-MIN
口試日期:2020-07-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:影像處理數位影像相關法三維數位影像相關法立體成像
外文關鍵詞:Image processingdigital image correlation3D digital image correlationstereo imaging
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在鞋面製造的過程中,了解包覆於鞋面上之布料特性是必需的。傳統上只能依照過去個人使用經驗,且無法量化。當經驗不足時就會發生包覆力不夠或者製鞋過程中產生不必要的布料使用浪費。而為了解決此問題,我們需要一個易操作、可量化、能重複施作的方法來取得布料的力學特性。
隨著影像處理技術的進步,數位影像相關法(Digital Image Correlation, DIC)被發展來透過追蹤所有材料特徵點所產生之位移以測量材料受力程度。它屬於非接觸式的量測方式,至今發展出的演算法能夠取得高準確度之數據驗證,再加上實驗過程簡單,以及分析時間快速都是用它進行布料測試的優點。然而當一些彈性布料受拉力大到一定程度時其邊緣會開始捲曲,在傳統二維DIC架構下,正面相機無法偵測到捲曲處屬於面外位移的表面特徵點,此時就需要以三維DIC的取像和分析方式來取得完整待測布料之形變數據。
三維DIC沿用二維DIC的影像特徵位移計算模型,並結合立體成像將真實世界座標和影像座標進行轉換的概念,最終整合多個二維DIC來觀察待測物整體的表面位移情形。透過實作多相機的三維DIC計算模式,加上本研究所設計的時間校正處理以及實驗流程機制來重建出整體待測布料之模型,我們可確認三維DIC應用於擷取彈性布料受測產生形變數據的可行性。

In the process of manufacturing the upper side of the shoes, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the covering fabric material. Traditionally, it relies solely on the personal experience that is not quantifiable. Inexperienced shoe makers may use too much fabric materials or cut a piece with insufficient coverage. In order to solve this problem, it is desired to have a fast, quantifiable, and repeatable measurement to obtain the mechanical properties of different fabric materials.
With the advance of image processing technology, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) has been developed to measure the degree of force on a material by tracking the displacements generated by all feature points on the material. It is a non-contact measurement, and the algorithm have been verified to obtain high-accuracy data. In addition, the simple experimental procedures and fast analysis make it a suitable method for testing the fabric mechanical properties. However, when an elastic fabric material receives certain level of strain force that makes its boundary begin to curl, the traditional two-dimensional DIC cannot capture the out-of-plane displacement of the feature points. Then the three-dimensional DIC (3D-DIC) is required to obtain the complete deformation data of the elastic fabric material.
The 3D-DIC follows the displacement calculation method of the 2D-DIC, combines the concept of stereo imaging that makes transforms between real world coordinates and image coordinates, and finally integrates multiple 2D-DIC observations to obtain the complete surface displacement of the whole object. Through the implementation of 3D-DIC with multiple cameras, our time-synchronization procedures, and the complete experimental process, we can confirm the feasibility of data acquisition when applying 3D-DIC to the deformation testing of elastic fabric materials.

目錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 本文貢獻 3
1.4 論文大綱 4
第二章 相關文獻回顧及探討 6
2.1 數位影像相關法之發展 6
2.2 三維數位影像相關法之發展 8
第三章 實驗分析方法 10
3.1 數位影像 10
3.2 數位影像相關法 11
3.2.1 數位影像相關法之簡介 11
3.2.2 數位影像相關法之相關演算法 12
3.2.2-I 子區域之形變及位移 13
3.2.2-II 相關性標準( Correlation Criteria ) 14
3.3 三維數位影像相關法 17
3.3.1 座標系統之校準( System Calibration ) 18
3.3.1-I 內部參數及外部參數 18
3.3.1-II 直接線性轉換法( Direct Linear Transformation, DLT ) 21
3.3.1-III Bundle Adjustment (BA) method 21
3.3.2 重建三維座標( 3D reconstruction ) 22
3.3.3 面之合併( Surface Merge ) 24
第四章 實驗流程及結果 26
4.1 實驗方法流程圖 26
4.2 實驗設備架設及環境 27
4.2.1 Raspberry Pi及相機模組之介紹 28
4.2.2 Raspberry Pi作業系統安裝及相機模組設定 31
4.2.2-I Raspberry Pi之作業系統安裝 31
4.2.2-II 相機模組之設定 32
4.2.3 實驗環境 32
4.3 實驗分析流程 33
4.3.1 Raspberry Pi 操作 34
4.3.1-I 撰寫影像拍攝程式 34
4.3.1-II SSH ( Secure SHell protocol ) 遠端連線 34
4.3.1-III 同步執行程式 35
4.3.2 校正拍攝 35
4.3.2-I 校正板之校正拍攝 36
4.3.2-II 待測物對位點拍攝 37
4.3.3 實驗進行 38
4.3.4 資料前處理 39
4.3.4-I 幀數切割 39
4.3.4-II 時間同步校正 39
4.3.5 MultiDIC之執行 40
4.3.5-I 建立三維對位控制點圖 41
4.3.5-II 失真校正 41
4.3.5-III DLT對位計算 44
4.3.5-IV 2D-DIC 45
4.3.5-V 重建三維點雲圖 47
4.3.5-VI 3D-DIC 48
4.4 實驗結果與探討 49
4.4.1 實驗探討 49
4.4.1-I 三維空間物體重組之誤差 49
4.4.1-II 不同形式待測物之實作 53
4.4.2 實驗結果 56
4.4.2-I 相機校正後結果 56
4.4.2-II 半圓剛體之位移驗證 58
4.4.2-III 重建之三維座標點與實際對位點之觀察 61
4.4.2-IV 3D-DIC之分析結果 62
第五章 結論與未來展望 64
參考文獻 66

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