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研究生:莊子平
研究生(外文):CHUANG, TZU-PING
論文名稱:應用於工具機防碰撞偵測之晶片設計
論文名稱(外文):Chip Design of Collision Detection for Machine Tool
指導教授:朱元三
指導教授(外文):CHU, YUAN-SUN
口試委員:侯廷昭黃崇勛陳中和
口試委員(外文):HOU, TING-CHAOHUANG, CHUNG-HSUNCHEN, CHUNG-HO
口試日期:2020-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:工具機碰撞偵測三維建模分離軸
外文關鍵詞:Machine toolCollision detection3D modelingSeparation axis
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工具機碰撞會對工具機造成損害,輕則造成工件報廢、刀具損壞,嚴重則造成工具機精度下降、工具機部件毀壞,更甚之會危及工具機台操作人員及加工人員的安全。而隨著科技不斷的演進,對於工具機的精度要求越來越高,工具機的自動防碰撞系統也越來越重要,不論是在機械手臂,精密儀器、機器人等,都會需要防碰撞偵測系統。
碰撞檢測之前,會先對待測物件進行三維建模,而三角形是構成三維物件最基本的元素,因此要針對三角網格構成的兩物件進行碰撞檢測,就必須將組成兩物件的三角形做相交測試。對於三角網格描述物件來講,在計算上會有資料量過大的問題,造成軟體運算速度無法負荷。本篇論文利用包圍體搭配分離軸的概念先進行第一步的碰撞檢測,再經由三角網格的分離軸來進行碰撞檢測,除了透過硬體架構設計解決計算速度,還能夠減少碰撞偵測時間及功耗,由於工具機不碰撞的機率大於95%,所以又在原本的三角網格碰撞偵測架構上進行進一步的改良,並且可以省下7.02%的功耗。在製程TN40G (45nm) 下,並且頻率可達400MHz,達到工業上要求1ms內計算完畢的即時碰撞偵測系統,並以工具機的應用來證明,有辦法達到即時偵測的效果。

The collision of the machine tool will cause the damage of the machine tool due to the scrapped workpiece and the damaged machine tool, thereby seriously reducing the accuracy of the machine tool, destroying the machine tool components, and even endangering the safety of the machine operator and the processing personnel. With the continuous development of technology, the precision requirements of machine tools are getting higher and higher, and the automatic collision avoidance system of machine tools is also more and more important. Whether in robotic arms, precision instruments, robots, etc., collision detection systems are required.
Before collision detection, the object to be measured will be three-dimensionally modeled. Triangles are the most basic elements of three-dimensional objects. Therefore, in order to perform collision detection on two objects composed of triangular meshes, it is necessary to test the triangles constituting the two objects. For the triangular mesh description object, there will be a problem of too much data in the calculation, which will lead to the failure to load the software calculation speed. In this thesis, the separation axis of the triangular grid is used for collision detection. In addition to solving the calculation speed through hardware architecture design, it also reduces collision detection time and power consumption. The final realization result, under the TN40G (45nm) process, reached the real-time collision detection system calculated within 1ms required by the industry, and proved that there is a method to achieve real-time detection through the application of the machine tool.

誌謝 iii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xi
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 動機 1
1.2 研究目標 2
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 背景知識 4
2.1 防碰撞技術 4
2.2 工具機碰撞偵測系統流程 5
2.3 三維建模(Three Dimension Modeling) 7
2.4 輸入的資料型態(.STL) 8
2.5 包圍體(Bounding Volume) 9
2.5.1 包圍球(Bounding Sphere) 10
2.5.2 軸對齊包圍盒(Axis-Aligned Bounding Box) 10
2.5.3 方向性包圍盒(Oriented Bounding Box) 12
2.6 三角網格(Triangle Mesh) 13
2.7 分離軸定理(Separating Axis Theorem) 14
第三章 相關研究 15
A collision detection algorithm of Robot in off-line programming system [14] 15
Dynamic Collision Detection using Oriented Bounding Boxes [15] 17
Collision Detection of Triangle Meshes using GPU [16] 17
Research on Collision Detection Algorithm Based on AABB [17] 18
Collision Detection Based on Bounding Box for NC Machining Simulation [18] 19
Design and Implementation of Real-Time Collision Detection ASIC for Machine Tools – Yi Hung, Chang [12] 20
第四章 碰撞偵測演算法 22
4.1 包圍體碰撞偵測演算法 22
4.1.1 包圍球碰撞偵測演算法(Bounding Sphere) 22
4.1.2 軸對齊包圍盒碰撞偵測演算法(Axis-Aligned Bounding Box) 23
4.1.3 方向性包圍盒(Oriented Bounding Box) 24
4.1.4 包圍體比較 26
4.2 三角網格碰撞偵測演算法 27
A Fast Triangle-Triangle Intersection Test – Tomas Mӧller [7] 27
A Collection of Efficient and Reliable Intersection Tests [8] 27
Faster Triangle-Triangle Intersection Tests [9] 28
A Fast Triangle To Triangle Intersection Test For Collision Detection [10] 30
五軸工具機即時碰撞偵測之研究 – 顏嘉亮 [11] 31
4.3 演算法的分析與選擇 34
第五章 系統流程與分析 36
5.1 碰撞偵測系統架構 36
5.2 碰撞偵測系統流程與解析 38
第六章 硬體實作結果 44
6.1 硬體架構 44
6.2 包圍體碰撞偵測各區塊說明 46
6.2.1 DATA_IN 46
6.2.2 Separation Axis 46
6.2.3 Projection 47
6.2.4 Overlap test 48
6.3 三角網格碰撞偵測各區塊說明 49
6.3.1 DATA_IN 49
6.3.2 Coplanar 49
6.3.3 Separation Axis 50
6.3.4 Projection 51
6.3.5 Overlap test 52
6.4 架構分析 53
6.5 相關論文比較 54
6.6 晶片佈局圖 55
第七章 結論與未來規劃 56
7.1 結論 56
7.2 未來規劃 56
第八章 參考資料 57

[1]Gang Mei, “Real Model:A System for Modeling and Visualizing Sedimentary Rocks,” Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Fakult¨at f¨ur Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften der Albert-Ludwigs-Universit¨at Freiburg im Breisgau, 2014.
[2]J. Ritter, “An efficient bounding sphere,” In Graphics Gems, A. Glassner, Ed. Ac-ademic Press, 301-303, 1990.
[3]O’Sullivan, C. Dingliana, “Real-Time Collision Detection and Response Using Sphere-Trees,” Image Synthesis Group, Trinity College Dublin, 1999.
[4]J. D. Cohen, M. C. Lin, D. Manocha, M.Ponamgi, “I-COLLIDE:an Interactive and Exact Collision Detection System For Large-Scale Encironments,” ACM In-teractive 3D Graphics Conference, pp. 189-196, 1995.
[5] G. Van Den Bergen, “Efficient Collision Detection of Complex Deformable Mo-dels Using AABB Trees,” Journal of Graphics Tools, 2(4):1-13, 1997.
[6]S. Gottschalk, M. C. Lin and D. Manocha, “OBBTree:A Hierarchical Structure For Rapid Interference Detection,” Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Confe-rence on Computer Graphics, 1996.
[7]Tomas Mӧller ,“A Fast Triangle-Triangle Intersection Test,” Journal of Graphics Tools,1997
[8]Martin Held, “A Collection of Efficient and Reliable Intersection Tests,” Journal of Graphics Tools,1998
[9]Olivier Devillers and Philippe Guigue ,“Faster Triangle-Triangle Intersection T-ests,” Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, 2006.


[10]Oren Tropp, Ayellet Tal and IIan Shimshoni “A Fast Triangle To Triangle Inters-ection Test For Collision Detection,” Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 2005.
[11]顏嘉亮, “五軸工具機即時碰撞偵測之研究,” 碩士論文,國立中正大學機械工程研究所, 2012.
[12]Y. Chang, I. Chang-Chien, C. Huang and Y. Chu, "Design and Implementation of Real-Time Collision Detection ASIC for Machine Tools," 2019 International Conference on Engineering, Science, and Industrial Applications (ICESI), Tokyo, Japan, 2019, pp. 1-5
[13]陳宥瑋, “CSG 模型指定碰撞面五軸加工碰撞偵測研究,” 碩士論文, 國立中正大學機械工程研究所, 2014
[14]R. Huang, T. Tang, Y. Lou and M. Xiao, "A collision detection algorithm of Rob-ot in off-line programming system," 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on Information Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 2014, pp. 349-353.
[15]David Eberly, “Dynamic Collision Detection using Oriented Bounding Boxes,” Geometric Tools, Redmond WA 98052, 2008.
[16]Nils Ba ̈ckman, “Collision Detection of Triangle Meshes using GPU,” UmeA ̈ University Department of Computing Science, 2010.
[17]W. Xiao-rong, W. Meng and L. Chun-gui, "Research on Collision Detection Algorithm Based on AABB," 2009 Fifth International Conference on Natural Computation, Tianjin, 2009, pp. 422-424.
[18]Wang et. al, “Collision Detection Based on Bounding Box for NC Machining Simulation,” International Conference on Applied Physics and Industrial En-gineering, 2012.

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