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研究生:吳尚儒
研究生(外文):WU, SHANG-RU
論文名稱:應用於大型倉儲系統之高效能防碰撞電子標籤辨識演算法
論文名稱(外文):Highly efficient anti-collision tag identification algorithm in large scale RFID systems
指導教授:梁秋國
指導教授(外文):LIANG, CHIU-KUO
口試委員:嚴力行王俊鑫梁秋國
口試委員(外文):YEN, LI-HSINGWANG, CHUN-HSINLIANG, CHIU-KUO
口試日期:2020-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:無線射頻辨識系統訊號碰撞電子標籤防碰撞演算法倉儲管理
外文關鍵詞:RFIDtag collisiontag anti-collision algorithmswarehouse management
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無線射頻辨識 (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) 技術,是一種利用無線射頻電磁波及嵌入式晶片卡儲存資訊來辨識特定物品的系統,近期因為物聯網的興起,更加被重視應用於日常生活及倉儲管理系統中,RFID辨識技術己成為人們的生活中不可或缺技術。

本論文以大型倉儲管理作為研究目的,在一般大型倉儲的管理系統之中,存放於貨架上的物品大多都會是同個廠家生產的同一批型號的產品,故該產品都會擁有相同的廠商代碼、產品代碼、接著才會是產品的序列號,而在實務上常應用的UID長度為96位元,因此在此種循序分佈的情況下,如何更快速的辨識完所有的電子標籤,便是本論文的目的。

本論文提出一個基於混合式高效能預先偵測技術之RFID電子標籤辨識演算法(Hybrid Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm, HPDBA),此算法是以基於改良式高效能預先偵測技術之RFID電子標籤辨識演算法(Improved Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm, IEPDBA)為基礎進行改善,我們在預先偵測階段分析了預先偵測時槽,標籤回覆UID數量的多寡,以及標籤回覆亂數位元得數量,使標籤在循序分布的情況下,傳輸效能能因此而提升。本論文有進行模擬分析,依模擬結果得出我們提出的改善高效能預先偵測廣播演算法,在電子標籤循序分佈的情況下,整體的傳輸效能表現都要比原本的IEPDBA要來的好。

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a system for identification of specific items, which uses radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, and of embedding chip cards used to store information. Recently, with the booming of Internet of things, RFID technology is widely used in our daily life, e.g., warehouse management system etc. That is to say that RFID technology has been a well-known wireless application in our society.

The aim of this thesis is to apply RFID technology in a large warehouse management. Normally, goods to be deposited in a warehouse are manufactured by a factory with the same model number, manufacturer number, product code and then serial number. Also, in case of practical application, how to rapidly identify 96 bytes UID tag with the condition of sequence distribution is conducted in this thesis.

This thesis proposes an improved Hybrid Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm (HPDBA), which is based on Improved Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm (IEPDBA) architecture. We analyze pre-detection time slots, number of UID and number of random bytes replied from tags during pre-detection process, such that transport performance can be improved in sequential-distribution RFID environment. A simulation study is also conducted to verify the HPDBA we propose in this thesis. The simulation results show that the HPDBA have a better overall transport performance than the IEPDBA with tags in sequential-distribution environment.

摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iii
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
第 1 章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 RFID 系統 2
1.3.1 讀取器(Readers) 2
1.3.2 電子標籤(Tags) 3
1.3.3 應用系統 (Application systems) 4
1.4 論文架構 5
第 2 章 相關研究 6
2.1 RFID標準協定概述 6
2.2 RFID系統碰撞問題 9
2.2.1 電子標籤碰撞問題 (Tags Collision) 9
2.2.2 讀取器碰撞問題 (Reader Collision) 10
2.3 防碰撞技術 11
2.3.1 空間分割多重存取(Space division multiple access) 11
2.3.2 分頻多重存取(Frequency division multiple access) 12
2.3.3 分碼多重存取(Code division multiple access) 12
2.3.4 分時多重存取(Time division multiple access) 13
2.4 Aloha Based 標籤防碰撞協定(Aloha Based Tag Anti-collision Protocols) 14
2.5 Tree Based 標籤防碰撞協定(Tree Based Tag Anti-collision Protocols) 16
2.5.1 Binary Tree Algorithm (BT) 17
2.5.2 Query Tree Algorithm (QT) 19
2.5.3 4-ary Query Tree Algorithm 21
2.5.4 Hybrid Query Tree Algorithm (HQT) 23
2.5.5 Hybrid Hyper Tag Anti-Collision Algorithm (H2QT) 28
第 3 章 預先偵測演算法介紹 32
3.1 PDBQT算法介紹 32
3.1.1 PDBQT功能說明 32
3.1.2 範例說明PDBQT 34
3.2 EPDBA 算法介紹 50
3.2.1 EPDBA功能說明 50
3.2.2 範例說明EPDBA 52
3.3 IEPDBA算法介紹 63
3.3.1 IEPDBA功能說明 63
3.3.2 範例說明IEPDBA 66
3.4 PDBQT、EPDBA與IEPDBA算法之功能比較 76
第 4 章 混合式高效能預先偵測技術辨識演算法 (Hybrid Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm,HPDBA) 78
4.1 研究構想 78
4.2 HPDBA演算法 79
4.2.1 亂數位元回覆多寡(Random Number) 79
4.2.2 預先偵測時槽開設多寡(Pre-Detection Slot) 80
4.2.3 UID位元回覆多寡 81
4.2.4 HPDBA範例說明 85
4.3 HPDBA、PDBQT、EPDBA、IEPDBA算法比較 91
第 5 章 效能分析與模擬 93
5.1 模擬環境 93
5.2 實驗一 : 各項參數對比IEPDBA效能改善 93
5.2.1 各組合對比IEPDBA之改善效能 94
5.3 實驗二:預先偵測階段三種參數之模擬分析 96
5.3.1 亂數位元數多寡於循序分佈影響之實驗結果與分析 96
5.3.2 回傳UID多寡於循序分佈影響之實驗結果與分析 98
5.2.3 預先偵測時槽多寡於循序分佈影響之實驗結果與分析 99
5.4 實驗三:循序分佈下與各算法之模擬分析 101
5.4.1 循序分佈模擬實驗結果與分析 101
5.5 實驗四:於不同循序分佈取樣下之模擬結果 104
5.5.1 取樣方式 104
5.5.2 循序分佈下不同的Group Size與各算法之模擬分析 105
5.6 模擬實驗結論 111
第 6 章 結論與未來展望 112
6.1 結論 112
6.2 未來展望 112
參考文獻 113

[1]J. Landt, “The History of RFID,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 24, issue 4, pp. 8-10, Oct.-Nov.2005.
[2]Kuo-sen Hsu, “An Improved Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Identification Algorithm in RFID Systems”, in Chung Hua University (CHU), Jan 2019.
[3]GS1, EPC global, “EPC Radio-Frequency Identify Protocols Class-1 Generation-2UHF RFID Protocol for Communication at 860MHZ-960 MHZ Version 1.2.0”,http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/uhfc1g2/uhfc1g2_1_2_0-standard-20080511.pdf, 2008.
[4]黃秋煌 ,“RFID應用(1)”, http://web.lib.fcu.edu.tw/libstories/archives/561, 逢甲大學資訊工程學系, 2010.
[5]無線射頻識別系統(RFID), http://yes.nctu.edu.tw/Lecture/NewTech/C05/RFID/RFID.htm
[6]GS1 TW,”編號與轉換-物件編碼說明” https://www.gs1tw.org/twct/web/ecode_info.jsp?MECODE=e03
[7]GS1 TW,”EPC碼和GS1條碼互用原則”
https://www.gs1tw.org/twct/web/downloads/A-3.pdf
[8]EPCglobal, “EPC Generation 1 Tag Data Standards Version 1.1 Rev.1.27”, https://www.gs1.org/sites/default/files/docs/epc/tds_1_1_rev_1_27-standard-20050510.pdf, May 2005.
[9]Okkyeong Bang, Ji Hwan Choi, Dongwook Lee, Hyuckjae Lee ,“Efficient Novel Anti-collision Protocols for Passive RFID Tags”, Auto-ID Labs White Paper WP-HARDWARE-050 March 2009
[10]Dong-Her Shih, Po-Ling Sun, David C. Yen, Shi-Ming Huang,“Taxonomy and survey of RFID anti-collision protocols”, January 2006.
[11]Alejandro Ruiz-Rivera, Dheeraj Klair, Kwan-Wu Chin ,“A simulation study on the energy efficiency of pure and slotted Aloha based RFID tag reading protocols”, 2009.
[12]H. S. Choi, J. R. Cha, and J. H. Kim, “Improved Bit-by-bit Binary Tree Algorithm in Ubiquitous ID System”, in proceedings of the IEEE PCM2004, Tokyo, Japan, Nov.29-Dec. 3, pp. 696–703, 2004.
[13]J. Myung and W. Lee, “An adaptive memoryless tag anti-collision protocls for RFID networks,” IEEE INFORCOM’05, Poster Session, Mar. 2005.
[14]Jongmin Shin, Byeongchan Jeon, and Dongmin Yang, “Multiple RFID Tags Identification with M-ary Query Tree Scheme”,IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 3,Mar.2013
[15]J. Ryu, H. Lee, Y. Seok, T. Kwon, and Y.Choi, “A Hybrid Query Tree Protocol for Tag Collision Arbitration in RFID system”, IEEE ICC, pp 5981-5986, Jun. 2007.
[16]Tae Hee KimandSeong Joon Lee, “A Hybrid Hyper Tag Anti-Collision Algorithm in RFID System”,IEEE ICC, pp. 1276-1281, Feb.2009.
[17]Chih-hung Tsai, “Using Pre-Detection Technique Towards An Efficient RFID Tag Anti-Collision Algorithm”, in Chung Hua University (CHU), July 2012.
[18]Shu-Yuan Chang, “An Efficient Pre-Detection Algorithm in RFID Systems”, in Chung Hua University (CHU), August 2013.

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