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研究生:謝文洋
研究生(外文):Wen-Yang Hsieh
論文名稱:學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質、父母共親職與母親親職壓力
論文名稱(外文):Temperament of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders,Coparenting and Maternal Parenting Stress
指導教授:陳韻如陳韻如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yunn-Ru Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:自閉症類群障礙症共親職氣質親職壓力學齡前兒童
外文關鍵詞:Autism spectrum disorderCoparentingParenting stressPreschoolerTemperament
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根據Abidin(1990)所建構之親職壓力模式,親子系統中的壓力來源,主要來自於兩大因素:父母因素(parent characteristics)與兒童因素(child characteristics),本研究認為在考量影響親職壓力之相關因素時,須額外納入家庭系統之觀點,才能更加廣泛地描繪父母於教養過程中所感受到的親職壓力之樣貌。
親職壓力的來源除了父母、子女本身的個人因素外,父母教養間的合作與親子關係品質亦非常重要,因此,本研究將與夫妻雙方對彼此教養態度及信念有關之「共親職」,作為親職壓力之父母因素來源,進一步探討其與親職壓力間的關係。除了父母因素的影響外,兒童因素對於親職壓力亦具有相當程度之影響力,本研究認為氣質是重要的兒童因素來源,尤其當育有難養氣質的自閉症類群障礙症(autism spectrum disorder, 以下簡稱ASD)兒童時,相較於其他特殊兒童與一般兒童,ASD兒童之父母在養育過程更容易經驗到較為沉重的親職壓力(Hayes & Watson, 2013)。綜整而言,本研究在家庭系統觀點之脈絡下,探究兒童氣質(兒童因素)、母親所覺察到的共親職(父母因素),以及母親自身所感受到之親職壓力三者變項間的關聯。
本研究採橫斷式研究設計,共招募106位學齡前ASD兒童(3歲0個月至7歲11個月)及其母親參與研究。母親共填答:親職壓力量表簡式版(Parenting Stress Index: Short Form, PSI/SF)、兒童行為量表(Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, CBQ)、共親職關係量表(Coparenting Relationship Scale, CRS)、自閉症類群障礙症檢核表(Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder-Chinese Version, CASD-C)以蒐集母親所知覺到之親職壓力分數、學齡前ASD兒童的氣質和母親覺察到的共親職、以及學齡前ASD兒童症狀嚴重度等資料。此外,研究者以魏氏幼兒智力量表第四版(WPPSI-IV)個別蒐集學齡前ASD兒童之全量表智商分數(FSIQ)。
研究發現如下:一、學齡前ASD兒童氣質之「負向情感」可正向預測「親子失功能互動指標」、「困難兒童指標」及「母親親職壓力總分」,而「主動控制」可負向預測「親子失功能互動指標」、「困難兒童指標」及「母親親職壓力總分」;二、「支持性共親職」可負向預測「父母困擾指標」,「抵制性共親職」可正向預測「父母困擾指標」、「困難兒童指標」及「母親親職壓力總分」;三、「支持性共親職」可調節學齡前ASD兒童氣質之「騰動性/外向性」與「親子失功能互動指標」間的關係,而「抵制性共親職」可調節學齡前ASD兒童氣質之「負向情感」與「親子失功能互動指標」、「母親親職壓力總分」,以及學齡前ASD兒童氣質之「騰動性/外向性」與「親子失功能互動指標」間的關係;四、「抵制性共親職」在學齡前ASD兒童氣質之「負向情感」與「母親親職壓力總分」之關係中,具部分中介效果。
本研究結果可提供臨床實務工作者以及育有學齡前ASD兒童之父母,更加瞭解並意識到父母共親職對於學齡前ASD兒童氣質親職壓力之預測,進而思考共親職可作為兒童氣質與親職壓力間的中介或調節角色,以凸顯在兒童療育的過程中,父母雙方合作之重要性。
Abidin (1990) made a parenting stress model which included the range of variables and central components of parenting. Parenting stress model attempts to address the stress from the parent-child system, and divides into two major factors: the parent characteristics and the child characteristics. This study attempts to take into consideration on family systems perspective to explore the factors which affect parenting stress, and could be more comprehensive for describing parenting stress.
The parenting stress should be consider not only from the personal factors of parents or children, but from the parent-parent and the parent-child relationships. For further exploring the dynamic relationship between it and parenting stress, coparenting could be a complex construct that shares characteristics with other areas of the family systems and defined as how mothers and fathers coordinate their parenting efforts and support/undermine each other in their roles as parents. Besides, temperament is considered the important child components of parenting stress. Due to the difficult temperament of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), parents of children with ASD are at risk for higher stress levels than parents of children with other developmental disabilities and typical development (Hayes & Watson, 2013). In conclusion, the study will investigate the relationship among the ASD preschoolers’ temperament, coparenting and maternal parenting stress in the context of the family systems perspective.
This study conducted a cross-sectional design. 106 ASD children (aged from 3yr 0mo to 7yr 11mo) and their mother participated in this research. Several questionnaires were filled out by mothers as follows: Parenting Stress Index: Short Form (PSI/SF) for obtaining maternal parenting stress types index, Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) for obtaining the temperament of preschool children with ASD, Coparenting Relationship Scale (CRS) for obtaining supportive and undermining coparenting index, Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder-Chinese Version (CASD-C) for obtaining the severity of ASD symptoms. In addition, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV) were conducted individually to collect the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) score of each ASD preschooler.
Results are as follows: First, ASD preschoolers’ negative affect temperament positively predicted Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, Difficult Child, and Total Scores of Maternal Parenting Stress, while ASD preschoolers’ effortful control temperament negatively predicted Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, Difficult Child, and Total Scores of Maternal Parenting Stress. Second, Supportive Coparenting negatively predicted Parental Distress, while Undermining Coparenting positively predicted Parental Distress and Difficult Child. Third, Supportive Coparenting was a significant moderator between the ASD preschoolers’ surgency/extraversion temperament and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, while Undermining Coparenting could be the moderator between ASD preschoolers’ temperament (negative affect, surgency/extraversion) and several index of maternal parenting stress (Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, Total Scores of Maternal Parenting Stress). Fourth, Undermining Coparenting was found as a significant partial mediator between the ASD preschoolers’ negative affect temperament and Total Scores of Maternal Parenting Stress.
Our research finding could provide some suggest for the clinical practitioners and parents, that ASD’s temperament and coparenting predict maternal parenting stress. Furthermore, coparenting would be the mediator or moderator between the temperament of ASD preschoolers and maternal parenting stress. It will also implies that adjusting parent-parent relationship, which will lead to decrease the level of stress in parenting behavior.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 親職壓力 3
一、親職壓力之影響層面與重要性 3
二、特殊兒童之父母親職壓力 7
三、影響ASD兒童之父母親職壓力的因素 9
第二節 氣質 12
一、氣質的構念 12
二、自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質之特性與影響 16
三、自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質與親職壓力 18
第三節 共親職 20
一、共親職之定義 20
二、特殊兒童之父母共親職 22
三、自閉症類群障礙症兒童之父母共親職與親職壓力 27
第四節 自閉症類群障礙症兒童之氣質、父母共親職與親職壓力 29
第五節 研究問題與假設 31
一、學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童之氣質對母親親職壓力的預測力 32
二、父母共親職對母親親職壓力之預測力 34
三、學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質、父母共親職與母親親職壓力之關係 35
第三章 研究方法 37
第一節 研究參與者 37
第二節 研究程序 38
第三節 研究工具 39
第四節 資料分析 42
第四章 研究結果 45
第一節 學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質、父母共親職與母親親職壓力之概述 46
一、學齡前ASD兒童之母親親職壓力的描述統計分析 46
二、學齡前ASD兒童之人口變項、氣質因素與父母共親職向度的描述統計分析 46
第二節 學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質、父母共親職與母親親職壓力之關係 48
一、學齡前ASD兒童之人口變項、氣質與父母共親職、母親親職壓力各變項相關分析 48
二、學齡前ASD兒童之氣質預測母親親職壓力各指標之階層迴歸分析 51
三、父母共親職向度預測母親親職壓力各指標之階層迴歸分析 54
第三節 父母共親職對兒童氣質與母親親職壓力之調節效果 57
一、學齡前ASD兒童氣質與父母共親職之交互作用預測父母困擾指標 57
二、學齡前ASD兒童氣質與父母共親職之交互作用預測親子失功能互動指標 59
三、學齡前ASD兒童氣質與父母共親職之交互作用預測困難兒童指標 63
四、學齡前ASD兒童氣質與父母共親職之交互作用預測親職壓力總分 63
第四節 父母共親職於兒童氣質與母親親職壓力之中介效果 66
一、抵制性共親職對負向情感預測親職壓力總分之中介效果 68
二、抵制性共親職對負向情感預測困難兒童指標之中介效果 69
第五章 綜合討論 71
第一節 學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質與母親親職壓力之關聯 72
一、負向情感與母親親職壓力之關聯 72
二、騰動性/外向性與母親親職壓力之關聯 73
三、主動控制與母親親職壓力之關聯 74
第二節 不同共親職向度與母親親職壓力指標之關聯 76
一、支持性共親職與母親親職壓力之關聯 76
二、抵制性共親職與母親親職壓力之關聯 77
第三節 父母共親職於學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質預測母親親職壓力之調節效果 78
一、學齡前ASD兒童之負向情感與抵制性共親職之交互作用預測母親親職壓力指標 80
二、學齡前ASD兒童之騰動性/外向性與父母共親職之交互作用預測親子失功能互動
指標 80
第四節 父母共親職對於學齡前自閉症類群障礙症兒童氣質與母親親職壓力之中介效果 82
第五節 研究貢獻、研究限制與未來研究方向 84
一、研究貢獻 84
二、研究限制與未來研究方向 86
參考文獻 91

表目錄
表1.1 兒童行為量表氣質向度定義 16
表4.1 學齡前ASD兒童之母親親職壓力各指標之描述統計 46
表4.2 學齡前ASD兒童全量表智商、症狀分數、氣質三因素及母親共親職向度之描述
統計 . 47
表4.3 學齡前ASD兒童之氣質因素、共親職向度與母親親職壓力指標之所有相關 50
表4.4 學齡前ASD兒童負向情感、騰動性/外向性、主動控制之氣質因素預測母親親
職壓力各指標 . 53
表4.5 支持性與抵制性共親職向度預測母親親職壓力各指標 56
表4.6 氣質之負向情感、騰動性/外向性、主動控制與支持性與抵制性共親職以及兩
者交互作用預測母親親職壓力各指標 58
表4.7 以氣質之負向情感預測親子失功能互動之單純主要效果分析表 60
表4.8 以氣質之騰動性/外向性預測親子失功能互動之單純主要效果分析表 61
表4.9 以氣質之騰動性/外向性預測親子失功能互動之單純主要效果分析表 .62
表4.10 以氣質之負向情感預測親職壓力總分之單純主要效果分析表 64
表4.11 以氣質之騰動性/外向性預測親職壓力總分之單純主要效果分析表 65
表4.12 以氣質之負向情感預測親職壓力總分之拔靴法結果:以抵制性共親職作為中介
變項 . 68
表4.13 以氣質之負向情感預測困難兒童指標之拔靴法結果:以抵制性共親職作為中介
變項 . 69
表5.1 控制變項、預測變項與結果變項關係整理表 89

圖目錄
圖2.1 Abidin與Burke (1978)的親職壓力模式 6
圖2.2 Feinberg (2003)共親職的生態模式 28
圖2.3 研究架構圖 31
圖4.1 以負向情感與抵制性共親職之交互作用預測親子失功能互動 . 60
圖4.2 以騰動性/外向性與支持性共親職之交互作用預測親子失功能互動 61
圖4.3 以騰動性/外向性與抵制性共親職之交互作用預測親子失功能互動 62
圖4.4 以負向情感與抵制性共親職之交互作用預測親職壓力總分 64
圖4.5 以騰動性/外向性與抵制性共親職之交互作用預測親職壓力總分 65
圖4.6 抵制性共親職對負向情感與親職壓力總分之中介效果 68
圖4.7 抵制性共親職對負向情感與困難兒童之中介效果 69
圖5.1 共親職之中介與調節路徑圖 78
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