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研究生:劉興哲
研究生(外文):LIU, HSING-CHE
論文名稱:台灣中部水棲甲蟲多樣性分析與麗陽牙蟲屬分類研究 (昆蟲綱: 鞘翅目)
論文名稱(外文):Aquatic beetles diversity analysis of middle of Taiwan and taxonomic study of Helochares (Insecta: Coleoptera)
指導教授:章日行李奇峯
指導教授(外文):CHANG, JIH-HSINGLEE, CHI-FENG
口試委員:王順成何琦琛
口試委員(外文):WANG, SHUN-CHENGHO, CHYI-CHEN
口試日期:2020-06-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:水生昆蟲生物多樣性牙蟲科新紀錄幼蟲
外文關鍵詞:aquatic insectsbiodiversityHydrophilidaenew recordlarva
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水生甲蟲是淡水中的常見昆蟲,具有抑制病媒蚊的能力。然而,水生甲蟲正在逐漸消失,因此在台灣中部水稻田中對水生甲蟲進行調查。採集期間為2019年,計有3科25種,並比較近海地區和內陸地區,共採集1098隻水生甲蟲,研究結果表明在台灣中部地區的近海地區的辛普森多樣性指數和物種數均優於內陸地區,並在台灣首次記錄到Hydrochara affinis (Sharp, 1873)。另外,基於採集的材料和博物館標本,修訂台灣的麗陽牙蟲屬Helochares Mulsant, 1844。共有6個物種: H. anchoralis Sharp, 1890、H. atropiceus Regimbart, 1903、H. lentus Sharp, 1890、H. neglectus (Hope, 1845)、H. pallens MacLeay, 1825和H. sauteri Orchymont, 1943。提供台灣分布圖和該屬的檢索表,並根據日本與那國島的標本,證實H. uenoi Matsui, 1995為H. sauteri Orchymont, 1943的同物異名。此外根據台灣採集的標本,描述了H. atropiceus Regimbart, 1903的幼蟲形態和頭部特徵。
Aquatic beetles are common insects in freshwater and have the ability to suppress vector mosquitoes. However, the aquatic beetles are gradually disappearing. Therefore, aquatic beetles in the rice fields of middle of Taiwan. The collection period was 2019, total 25 species belonging to 3 families. We compare the near sea area and the inland area. In total 1098 aquatic beetles individuals were collected, the results showed that the Simpson’s index and species number of near sea area are better than that of inland area in the middle of Taiwan, and first records Hydrochara affinis (Sharp, 1873) from Taiwan. In addition, the water scavenger beetle genus Helochares Mulsant, 1844 of Taiwan is reviewed based on freshly collected material and museum specimens. 6 species are recognized: H. anchoralis Sharp, 1890, H. atropiceus Regimbart, 1903, H. lentus Sharp, 1890, H. neglectus (Hope, 1845), H. pallens MacLeay, 1825 and H. sauteri Orchymont, 1943. A distribution map and key to Taiwanese species of the genus are provided. Based on the specimen of Yonaguni Island, Japan, confirmed H. uenoi Matsui, 1995, syn. nov. is synonymized with H. sauteri Orchymont, 1943. The morphology and head chaetotaxy of the larvae of H. atropiceus Regimbart, 1903 are described based on specimens collected in Taiwan.
Contents
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements III
Contents IV
List of Tables VI
List of Figures VII
1. Introduction 1
1-1 Motivation of research 1
1-2 Purpose of research 2
2. Literature Review 3
2-1 Survey of aquatic beetles in Taiwan 3
2-2 Taxonomy of Helochares Mulsant, 1844 4
3. Material and methods 6
3-1 Conceptual Framework 6
3-2 Study area 8
3-3 Data analysis 10
3-4 Specimen preparation and photographs 11
4. Results and discussion 14
4-1 Aquatic Coleoptera in rice field in the middle of Taiwan 14
4-2 Diversity of aquatic beetles in inland and near sea areas 16
4-3 Taxonomy of the Helochares Mulsant, 1844 in Taiwan 19
Genus Helochares Mulsant, 1844 19
Key to Taiwanese species of genus Helochares Mulsant 19
Helochares (s. str) atropiceus Regimbart, 1903 22
Helochares (s. str.) pallens MacLeay, 1825 32
Helochares (Hydrobaticus) anchoralis Sharp, 1890 34
Helochares (Hydrobaticus) lentus Sharp, 1890 35
Helochares (Hydrobaticus) neglectus (Hope, 1845) 37
Helochares (Hydrobaticus) sauteri Orchymont, 1943 38
5. Conclusion 48
6. References in English 49
7. References in Chinese 55
8. Appendix 58

List of Tables
Table 2-1. Literatures on the survey of aquatic beetles in the standing water in Taiwan. 3
Table 2-2. State of knowledge of the larvae of the Taiwan species of Helochares. L1, L2, L3 – larva of first, second, third instar; L? – larval instar unknown. 5
Table 3-1. Location of the rice fields. 9
Table 4-1. Aquatic beetles in rice field from the middle of Taiwan. 15

List of Figures
Figure 3-1. Conceptual Framework. 7
Figure 3-2. Study sites (St. 1–St. 19) in middle of Taiwan 8
Figure 3-3. fishing nets. 10
Figure 3-4. Material: (A) alcohol; (B) KOH; (C) heater; (D) microscope. 13
Figure 4-3. Environmental changes habitat for aquatic beetles in between Taichung City and Changhua County, (A) before urban development, (B) after urban development. Slash: Range of habitat of aquatic beetles in standing waters, parallelogram: Fish pond. 18
Figure 4-3. Egg case of Helochares pallens (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) female carry egg case. 21
Figure 4-4. Helochares (s. str) atropiceus Regimbart, 1903: (A–B) habitus of adult: (A) dorsal; (B) ventral; (C) adult carrying egg case; (D–G) larvae of H. atropiceus: (D) first instar; (E) second instar; (F) third instar (G) anterior margin of third instar. 25
Figure 4-5. Helochares atropiceus, first instar, head capsule. (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) anterior margin, dorsal view. 26
Figure 4-6. Helochares atropiceus, first instar. (A) antenna, dorsal view; (B–C) maxilla, dorsal view and ventral views; (D–E) labium, dorsal and ventral views; (F–G) mandible, left and right. 27
Figure 4-7. Helochares atropiceus, second instar, head capsule. (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) anterior margin, dorsal view. 28
Figure 4-8. Helochares atropiceus, second instar. (A) antenna, dorsal view; (B–C) – maxilla, dorsal view and ventral views; (D–E) labium, dorsal and ventral views; (F–G) mandible, left and right. 29
Figure 4-9. Helochares atropiceus, third instar, head capsule. (A) dorsal view; (B) ventral view; (C) anterior margin, dorsal view. 30
Figure 4-10. Helochares atropiceus, third instar. (A) antenna, dorsal view; (B–C) maxilla, dorsal view and ventral views; (D–E) labium, dorsal and ventral views; (F–G) mandible, left and right; (H) leg. 31
Figure 4-11. Habitus of Helochares species (A, C, E, G, I: habitus of dorsal view; B, D, F, H, J: habitus of ventral view; K–L: pronotum): (A–B, K–L) H. pallens; (C–D) H. anchoralis; (E–F) H. lentus; (G–H, L) H. neglectus; (I–J, M) H. sauteri. Scale size 1mm. 42
Figure 4-12. Elytra of Taiwanese Helochares species: (A) H. atropiceus; (B) H. pallens; (C) H. anchoralis; (D) H. lentus; (E) H. neglectus; (F) H. sauteri. 43
Figure 4-13. Male genitalia of Taiwanese Helochares species (A, C, E, G, I, K: dorsal view; B, D, F, H, J, L: lateral view): (A, B) H. atropiceus; (C, D) H. pallens; (E, F) H. anchoralis; (G, H) H. lentus; (I, J) H. neglectus; (K, L) H. sauteri. 44
Figure 4-14. Type specimens of Helochares species (A, E, I: habitus; B, F, J: abdomen and aedaegus; C–D, G–H, K: labels): (A–D) H. anchoralis; (E–H) H. lentus; (I–K) H. sauteri. Scale size 2mm. 45
Figure 4-15. Habitat of Helochares species: (A) Hsinchu County, Zhudong Township, habitat for H. anchoralis and H. pallens; (B) Hsinchu County, Beipu Township, habitat for H. atropiceus; (C) Tainan City, Baihe District, habitat for H. neglectus; (D) Taichung City, Wufeng District, habitat for H. sauteri. 46
Figure 4-16. Map of Taiwan showing distribution of species of the Helochares species. 47
Figure 8-1. Photos of sample stations. (A) Site 1; (B) Site 2; (C) Site 3; (D) Site 4; (E) Site 5; (F) Site 6. 58
Figure 8-2. Photos of sample stations. (A) Site 7; (B) Site 8; (C) Site 9; (D) Site 10; (E) Site 11; (F) Site 12. 59
Figure 8-3. Photos of sample stations. (A) Site 13; (B) Site 14; (C) Site 15; (D) Site 16; (E) Site 17; (F) Site 18; (G) Site 19. 60



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