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研究生:許自安
研究生(外文):Hsu, Tzu-An
論文名稱:都會區咖啡廳之室內空氣品質評估
論文名稱(外文):Indoor Air Quality in Urban Coffee Shops
指導教授:唐進勝唐進勝引用關係林瑜雯林瑜雯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tang, Chin-ShengLin, Yu-Wen
口試委員:唐進勝林瑜雯張立德吳俊德
口試委員(外文):Tang, Chin-ShengLin, Yu-WenChang, Li-TeWu, J.D
口試日期:2020-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:咖啡廳室內空氣品質甲醛總有機揮發物PM10PM2.5粒相多環芳香烴
外文關鍵詞:coffee shopsindoor air qualityformaldehydetotal organic volatilesPM10PM2.5particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
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近年來民眾對室內空氣污染的意識逐漸提高,室內空氣品質已成為重要的公共衛生議題。有研究指出在不同的室內環境中,暴露到之室內污染物濃度可能是室外的2-5倍以上。現代人對於咖啡類飲品的需求上升,也帶動國內咖啡廳的成長,從2008年至2018年十年間,咖啡廳家數從1497家成長至3403家,但針對咖啡廳室內空氣品質的研究調查卻相對不足。行政院環保署室內空氣品質管理法106年1月11日公告的第二批列管場所中並未包含咖啡廳,因此本研究擬調查都會區不同類型咖啡廳室內污染物狀況,並探討影響室內空氣品質的可能因素。
本研究共徵得位於雙北地區六家有意願參與研究調查之咖啡廳,監測時間為2019年9月至2020年3月,本研究使用攜帶型直讀式儀器監測懸浮微粒(PM10與PM2.5)、總揮發性有機化合物(TVOCs)、粒相多環芳香烴(PAHs)、二氧化碳(CO2)、一氧化碳(CO)、甲醛(Formaldehyde, HCHO)、臭氧(O3)、溫度、濕度等,並記錄店內活動情況及人數,其中有兩家咖啡廳因空間大小與活動特性等因素,本研究另增加不同區域設置監測點以進行比較。本研究使用SPSS 20.0版本進行統計分析,並以Spearman及Nonparametric tests對污染物、人數、監測點位進行比較與分析。
六家咖啡廳室內污染物在大部分時段皆符合台灣室內空氣品質標準,只有在用餐人數較多的尖峰時段,有些室內空氣污染物濃度超過法規標準,以CO2及HCHO超過的比例較高,其濃度最高可分別達為1591 ppm及0.14 ppm。大部分咖啡廳在營業時間的CO、TVOCs、PM10、PM2.5 平均濃度比非營業時間高,相差最低為1.0倍,最高為153倍。在同一家店內,在用餐尖峰時段時廚房區可能因為有烹煮行為、鬆餅製作及研磨咖啡導致CO2、CO、PM濃度平均值比客人區高。
我們發現在某家咖啡廳的溫度與CO呈現高度正相關(rs=0.779),但在另一家咖啡廳中卻呈現中度負相關(rs=-0.521),而濕度、CO2與污染物之正負相關與相關性強度在不同店家也發現不一致的現象。此外,本研究在相關性分析中並未觀察到人數與室內污染物有顯著之正相關。
本研究調查的咖啡廳室內空氣污染物在大部分時間皆符合國內標準,只有在用餐人數較多的尖峰時段會超過法規標準。咖啡廳內的廚房區與客人區可能因為活動型態不同而導致室內汙染物分佈不同。烹飪、咖啡製備、清潔行為及抽菸會造成PM10與PM2.5、CO2、CO、HCHO、TVOCs、粒相PAHs濃度升高,此外,室內污染物還會受到客流量、溫濕度等環境因子影響。我們建議咖啡廳店家在用餐人數較多時,可使用適當的通風方式,減少室內空氣汙染物的累積。

People's awareness of indoor air pollution has gradually increased and the indoor air quality (IAQ) becomes an important public health issue recently. Several studies reported that the pollutant concentrations of indoor were 2-5 times or higher than those of outdoor. The rising demand for coffee beverages leads the growth of coffee shops in Taiwan. The numbers of coffee shop increased from 1,497 to 3,403 within 10 years (2008 – 2018). However, the coffee shop was not regulated by Taiwan Indoor Air Quality Act at current stage. Meanwhile, the researches and investigations of coffee shop IAQs are limited. This study intends to investigate the distribution of indoor air pollutants in coffee shops and illustrate the factors that might affect the IAQs.
Six coffee shops in the urban area of north Taiwan participated in this study from September 2019 to March 2020. The particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3), temperature, and humidity were monitored by direct reading instruments. The activities and number of people in the shop were recorded. More than two monitoring areas were arranged in two coffee shops due to the space size and activity patterns. SPSS version 20.0 was applied for the statistical analyses. Nonparametric tests were utilized for the significance tests and Spearman correlations were applied for the correlation analyses of the measurements and parameters.
The concentrations of the pollutants in the six coffee shops didn’t exceed the Taiwan's indoor air quality standards for most of the investigating periods. However, the concentrations of some pollutants exceeded the IAQ standards, especially CO2 and HCHO during peak hours with lots of diners in the shops. The maximum concentrations were 1591 ppm for CO2 and 0.14 ppm for HCHO. The average concentrations of CO, TVOCs, PM10, and PM2.5 during business hours were higher than those of non-business hours, with a minimum difference of 1.0 times and a maximum of 153 times in most of the coffee shops. In the same coffee shop, the CO2, CO, and PM concentrations in kitchen area were higher than in the guest area due to cooking behavior, muffin making, and coffee grinding in the kitchen area during peak dining hours.
The temperature and CO in one coffee shop was highly positively correlated (rs = 0.779), but moderately negatively correlated (rs = -0.521) in another coffee shop. The correlations of humidity and CO2 with other pollutants within the coffee shop were inconsistences. In addition, this study did not observe a significant positive correlation between the number of people and indoor pollutants in the correlation analysis.
The mean concentrations of indoor air pollutants in the investigated coffee shops met Taiwan IAQ criteria most of the time. The concentrations might exceed the IAQ standards during peak hours with lots of diners. The kitchen area and guest area in the coffee shop may have different distribution of indoor pollutants due to different types of activities. Cooking, coffee preparation, cleaning behaviors, and smoking increased the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, CO2, CO, HCHO, TVOCs, and PAHs. In addition, indoor pollutant concentrations were also affected by the environmental factors such as numbers of indoor customer, temperature and humidity. We recommend that coffee shops use proper ventilation methods to reduce the accumulation of indoor air pollutants during peak hours.

摘要…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. I
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………III
總目錄………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..V
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………VII
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. VIII
第一章 前言……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………........................................3
第一節 室內空氣品質………………………........................................................................3
第二節 臺灣室內空氣品質標準................................................................................4
第三節 各國室內空氣品質標準比較........................................................................6
第四節 室內空氣品質之影響因素...........................................................................7
4-1物理性因子........................................................................................................7
4-2化學性因子.......................................................................................................8
4-2-1二氧化碳(Carbon Dioxide, CO2) ................................................................8
4-2-2一氧化碳(Carbon Monoxide, CO) ..............................................................9
4-2-3懸浮微粒(Particulate Matter, PM) ...........................................................10
4-2-4甲醛(Formaldehyde, HCOH) .....................................................................11
4-2-5總有機揮發物(Total Volatile Organic Compound, TVOCs)……………..………12
4-2-6臭氧(Ozone, O3) .......................................................................................12
4-2-7多環芳香烴(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs)……………….…………13
4-3人數................................................................................................13
4-4活動行為..............................................................................................14
第五節 咖啡廳室內空氣品質..................................................................................15
第三章 研究方法.......................................................................................................17
第一節 研究設計.....................................................................................................17
第二節 監測策略.....................................................................................................17
第三節 研究儀器...............................................................................................20
3-1 微粒濃度監測儀....................................................................................20
3-2 手提式揮發性有機氣體偵測器.....................................................................22
3-3 直讀式微粒多環芳香烴成分分析儀.............................................................23
3-4空氣品質智控儀.................................................................................25
3-5手提式甲醛氣體偵測器………………………………………………………………………..….27
第四節 儀器校正...........................................................................................28
第五節 統計方法………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
第四章 結果..................................................................................................................30
第一節 研究地點基本資料………………………………………………………………………………….30
第二節 各咖啡廳污染物分佈情況………………………………………………………………….…..38
第三節 各咖啡廳營業時間與非營業時間污染物差異………………………………………..54
第四節 咖啡廳人數與污染物之相關性……………………………………………………………….66
第五節 全時段溫溼度與污染物之相關性………………………………………………….……….67
第六節 全時段二氧化碳與污染物之相關性………………………….…………………………..70
第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………………………….………………………73
第一節 各咖啡廳污染物分佈情況………………………………………………………………………73
第二節 各咖啡廳營業時間與非營業時間污染物差異…………………….….………………75
第三節 咖啡廳人數與污染物之相關性……………………………………………………………….75
第四節 全時段溫溼度與污染物之相關性……………………………………………………………76
第五節 全時段二氧化碳與污染物之相關性………………………………………….…………..77
第六節 研究限制………………………………………………………………………………………………..78
第六章 結論…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..79
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..81
附錄A 各店家人數與污染物濃度時間分佈圖……….………………………………………………87

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Tang, C. S., & Wan, G. H. (2013). Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan. PLoS One, 8(4), e61093. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061093.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Integrated science
assessment of ozone and related photo-chemical oxidants (second external review draft). Washington, DC,United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Wan, G.H., F.F. Chung, and C.S. Tang, Long-term surveillance of air quality in medical center operating rooms. Am J Infect Control, 2011. 39(4): p. 302-8.
Wolkoff, P., & Nielsen, G. D. (2010). Non-cancer effects of formaldehyde and relevance for setting an indoor air guideline. Environ Int, 36(7), 788-799. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.05.012.
World Health Organization. (2010). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected
pollutants.
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Zhang, K., Zhang, B. Z., Li, S. M., Wong, C. S., & Zeng, E. Y. (2012). Calculated
respiratory exposure to indoor size-fractioned polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban environment. Sci Total Environ, 431, 245-251.


二、中文部分

江哲銘。(2007)。室內環境品質簡易自評手冊: 內政部建築研究所。
周晏如、蔡朋枝、張振平、何雨芳、謝正悅、陳美如。(2013)。油炸後食用油
之酸價與空氣中多環芳香烴化合物濃度及毒性之關聯性調查。勞工安全衛生研究季刊,21(3),320-330。
馬翊綺。(2016)。不同粒徑懸浮微粒及微粒成分對健康成年人心跳速率變異性
之影響。天主教輔仁大學公共衛生研究所碩士論文。
楊景超。(2007)。自家烘培咖啡館之室內空氣品質評估。大仁科技大學環境管
理研究所碩士論文。
趙品瑄。(2014)。座位選擇、閱讀行為與停留時間之關係-以咖啡廳為例。國立
中興大學行銷學系碩士論文。
趙壽川。(2018)。新建醫院地下空間室內空氣品質之調查以美食商場與病歷室
為例。天主教輔仁大學公共衛生研究所碩士論文。
劉肇昀、曾昭衡。(2017)。室內空氣品質 改善策略-通風換氣。土木水利,第四十四卷,第六期,Vol。44,No6。doi:10.6653/MoCICHE.201712_44(6).0007。
羅時麒、陳伯勳。(2006)。各國室內環境品質(含空氣品質)管理機制之比較研究。

龔聖佑、陳成裕、張嘉智。(2010)。談室內空氣品質。勞工安全衛生簡訊,
103,5-8。
中華民國經濟部統計處。(2019)。產業經濟統計簡訊《337》。檢自:
https://www.moea.gov.tw/MNS/populace/news/News.aspx?kind=1&menu_id=40&news_id=85094。
行政院環境保護署。(2012)。室內空氣品質標準。檢自:
https://oaout.epa.gov.tw/law/LawContent.aspx?id=FL068252&KeyWord=%e5%ae%a4%e5%85%a7%e7%a9%ba%e6%b0%a3%e5%93%81%e8%b3%aa%e6%a8%99%e6%ba%96。
行政院環境保護署。(2017)。應符合室內空氣品質管理法之第二批公告場所。
檢自:
https://oaout.epa.gov.tw/law/LawContent.aspx?id=GL006828&KeyWord=%e5%ae%a4%e5%85%a7%e7%a9%ba%e6%b0%a3%e5%93%81%e8%b3%aa%e6%a8%99%e6%ba%96。
室內空氣質素管理小組。(2019)。辦公室及公眾場所室內空氣素質檢定計畫指南(2019)。香港特別行政區政府。檢自:https://www.iaq.gov.hk/media/65349/new-iaq-guide_chi.pdf。


三、日文部分

厚生労働省。(2001)。室内空気汚染に係るガイドライン案について―室内濃度に関する指針値―。檢自:
https://www.mhlw.go.jp/houdou/0107/h0724-1d.html。

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