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研究生:陳文淵
研究生(外文):CHEN, WEN-YUAN
論文名稱:台灣大學生英語與日語之課外學習活動經驗之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study of Taiwanese College Students’ English and Japanese Out-of-Class Learning Experiences
指導教授:曾明怡曾明怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):TSENG, MING-I
口試委員:陳碧珠吳雅莉
口試委員(外文):CHEN, BI-CHUWU, YA-LI
口試日期:2020-07-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:學習動機課外學習活動教室場域外的學習英語作為第二外語日語作為第三外語
外文關鍵詞:motivationout-of-class activitieslearning beyond classroomEFL (English as a foreign language)JFL (Japanese as a foreign language)
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學習動機對於第二語言習得是至關重要的,而參與課外學習活動是促進學習發展的重要手段之一。相關文獻已著墨在亞洲場域下學生參與課外學習活動的動機,但未深入檢視學生參與課外學習活動,同時學習兩種外語。因此,本研究探討非外語主修的大學生如何透過參加課外學習活動,建構並延續動機,及運用相關學習策略來學習英語(第二外語)和日語(第三外語)。
本研究為質性個案研究,研究者以其英語和日語的雙語背景作為輔助者,觀察並提供鷹架支持,旨為協助研究對象由參加課外活動,增進英語和日語的學習動機。採用立意抽樣,招募位於台灣北部一所私立大學中,學習日語作為第三外語的兩位英語高成就者和兩位英語低成就學習者。本研究收集多種研究資料,包括問卷調查,學習日誌,與研究人員每兩週進行一次的面談紀錄以及半結構式訪談。研究分析採三角驗證。主要研究發現為三:(一)具有強烈動機的學習者在第二語言或第三語言學習歷程中,如何參與課外活動,達到良好學習表現,相關影響其學習成效因素含同儕影響、語言天賦、外語學習策略等。(二)英語低成就的學生,參與課外活動學習第二外語英語和第三外語日語的動機有所差異,而形成學習兩極化現象。(三)成功的日語課外學習經驗與提升英語學習動機之間並無明確直接關係。依據研究結果,深入探討教室場域外的外語學習,提供相關建議,以協助成人學習者如何藉由各種課外活動習得第二語言習得,並提升學習自主。

Motivation has been regarded crucial in second language acquisition. Participation in out-of-class activities is one of important means to develop motivation. Previous studies have investigated motivation from the perspective of out-of-class learning in Asian contexts, but scant attention has been paid to the relationship between out-of-class learning of two foreign languages. To fill this gap, this study explored how non-language major college students utilize their learning strategies and sustain their motivation through their participation of out-of-class activities for learning English (EFL) and Japanese as foreign languages (JFL).
Drawing upon a qualitative case study methodology, the researcher himself served as a facilitator with his bilingual background in English and Japanese, observing and providing scaffolding to facilitate the research participants’ motivation by participating in out-of-class activities for learning English and Japanese. Purposive sampling was employed, recruiting two high achievers and two low achievers in English among Taiwanese EFL college students who also learn Japanese as their L3 or additional language in one private university in Northern Taiwan. Multiple data sources, including questionnaire, learning journals, biweekly review sessions with the researcher, and semi-structured interviews, were collected and triangulated for data analysis. Data analyses yield insights in three dimensions: First, the participants with strong motivation may perform better in learning foreign languages no matter L2 or L3; main factors affecting motivation of learning L3 include found peer influence, L2 language aptitude, and learning strategies. Second, for EFL low achievers, the bipolar distribution is found on account of their motivation in carrying out out-of-class activities when learning English as L2 and Japanese as L3 or additional language. Third, the successful out-of-class learning experience in JFL is not directly connected to the awareness in motivation for learning EFL. Based on research findings, relevant pedagogical implications are also discussed, regarding how to facilitate adult learners’ second language acquisition through various out-of-class activities, which in turn contributes to the development of learner autonomy.


Acknowledgements i
Table of Contents ii
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
摘要 viii
Abstract ix
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Rationale 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Research Focus and the Significance of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Definition of Terms 5
Chapter Two Literature Review 7
2.1 Motivation 7
2.2 Learning Beyond Classroom and Out-of-class Activities 10
2.3 Learning Strategies 13
2.4 Learning Styles 15
2.5 Learner Autonomy 15
2.6 Gaps in Previous Research 17
Chapter Three Methodology 19
3.1 Research Design 19
3.2 Triangulation 19
3.3 Research Context 20
3.4 Participants 21
3.5 The Role of Researcher 22
3.6 Data Collection Procedures and Rationale 23
3.7 Data Analysis 26
Chapter Four Results 30
4.1 Factors Affecting Taiwanese Students’ Motivation of Learning English and Japanese in Relation to Their Participation in Out-of-class Activities 30
4.1.1 Motivations of participation in out-of-class learning activities of Carrie and Faye, high-achievers of English (HAoE) 31
4.1.1.1 Motivation: Analysis of HAoEs’ questionnaire responses 31
4.1.1.2 Motivation: Analysis of HAoEs’ weekly learning journals, biweekly observation notes, and interviews 32
4.1.2 Motivations of participation in out-of-class learning activities of Ruby and Horace, low-achievers of English (LAoE) 33
4.1.2.1 Motivation: Analysis of LAoEs’ questionnaire responses 33
4.1.2.2 Motivation: Analysis of LAoEs’ weekly learning journals, biweekly observation notes, and interviews 34
4.2 Participation of Out-of-class Activities for English and Japanese Learning beyond Classroom 35
4.2.1 English language learning beyond the classroom: Location 36
4.2.1.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class English learning: Location 36
4.2.1.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Location 37
4.2.2 Japanese language learning beyond the classroom: Location 38
4.2.2.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Location 38
4.2.2.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Location 39
4.2.3 English language learning beyond the classroom: Formality 41
4.2.3.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Formality 41
4.2.3.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Formality 42
4.2.4 Japanese language learning beyond the classroom: Formality 43
4.2.4.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Formality 43
4.2.4.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Formality 44
4.2.5 English language learning beyond the classroom: Pedagogy 45
4.2.5.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Pedagogy 45
4.2.5.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Pedagogy 47
4.2.6 Japanese language learning beyond the classroom: Pedagogy 47
4.2.6.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Pedagogy 47
4.2.6.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Pedagogy 48
4.2.7 English language learning beyond the classroom: Locus of control 50
4.2.7.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Locus of control 50
4.2.7.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class English-learning: Locus of control 50
4.2.8 Japanese language learning beyond the classroom: Locus of control 51
4.2.8.1 HAoE learners’ (Carrie and Faye) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Locus of control 51
4.2.8.2 LAoE learners’ (Ruby and Horace) participation in out-of-class Japanese-learning: Locus of control 51
4.3 Learning Strategies Employed for Learning beyond Classroom 54
4.3.1 HAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class English learning activities 54
4.3.2 LAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class English learning activities 56
4.3.3 HAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class Japanese learning activities 57
4.3.4 LAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class Japanese learning activities 58
Chapter Five Discussion 60
5.1 Motivation of Participation in Out-of-class Activities for English and Japanese Learning 60
5.1.1 Two High Achievers (HAoEs): Carrie and Faye 60
5.1.1.1 Personal interest 60
5.1.1.2 Language aptitude 61
5.1.1.3 Peer influence 62
5.1.1.4 Learning styles 63
5.1.2 Two low achievers (LAoEs): Ruby and Horace 64
5.1.2.1 Personal interest 64
5.1.2.2 Language aptitude 65
5.1.2.3 Peer influence 67
5.1.2.4 Learning styles 67
5.2 English and Japanese Learning Experiences beyond Classroom 71
5.2.1 Dimension of location 71
5.2.2 Dimension of formality 73
5.2.3 Dimension of pedagogy 74
5.2.4 Dimension of locus of control 77
5.3 English and Japanese Learning Strategies beyond Classroom 80
5.3.1 Two high achievers (HAoEs): Carrie and Faye 80
5.3.2 Two low achievers (LAoEs): Ruby and Horace 83
Chapter Six Conclusion 86
6.1 Brief Summary of Key Findings 86
6.1.1 High achievers of English, Carrie and Faye 87
6.1.2 Low achievers of English, Ruby and Horace 88
6.2 Pedagogical Implications 89
6.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies 92
6.4 Conclusion 94
References 95
Appendices 102
Appendix A 102
Appendix B 111
Appendix C 118
Appendix D 119
Appendix E 120

List of Tables
Table 1.1 A list of foreign language courses offered by the university 2
Table 3.1 Profile of the four case participants 22
Table 3.2 The research: Data collection procedure 24
Table 4.1.1 High achievers’ self-reported motivations of participation in out-of- class activities for learning English: questionnaire responses 31
Table 4.1.2 High achievers’ self-reported motivations of participation in out-of-class activities for learning Japanese: questionnaire responses 31
Table 4.1.3 Low achievers’ self-reported motivations of participation in out-of-class activities for learning English: Questionnaire responses 34
Table 4.1.4 Low achievers’ self-reported motivations of participation in out-of-class activities for learning Japanese: Questionnaire responses 34
Table 4.2.1 HAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Location 37
Table 4.2.2 LAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Location 38
Table 4.2.3 HAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Location 39
Table 4.2.4 LAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Location 40
Table 4.2.5 Summary: HAoEs’ and LAoEs’ English learning beyond classroom-Location 40
Table 4.2.6 Summary: HAoEs’ and LAoEs’ Japanese learning beyond classroom- Location 41
Table 4.2.7 HAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Formality 42
Table 4.2.8 LAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Formality 42
Table 4.2.9 HAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Formality 43
Table 4.2.10 LAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Formality 44
Table 4.2.11 Summary: HAoEs’ and LAoEs’ English learning beyond classroom-Formality 45
Table 4.2.12 Summary: HAoEs and LAoEs’ Japanese learning beyond classroom-Formality 45
Table 4.2.13 HAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Pedagogy 46
Table 4.2.14 LAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Pedagogy 47
Table 4.2.15 HAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Pedagogy 48
Table 4.2.16 LAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Pedagogy 48
Table 4.2.17 Summary: HAoEs’ and LAoEs’ English learning beyond classroom-Pedagogy 49
Table 4.2.18 Summary: HAoEs and LAoEs' Japanese learning beyond classroom-Pedagogy 49
Table 4.2.19 HAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Locus of control 50
Table 4.2.20 LAoEs’ out-of-class English-learning experiences: Locus of control 51
Table 4.2.21 HAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Locus of control 51
Table 4.2.22 LAoEs’ out-of-class Japanese-learning experiences: Locus of control 52
Table 4.2.23 Summary: HAoEs and LAoEs' English learning beyond classroom-Locus of control 52
Table 4.2.24 Summary: HAoEs’ and LAoEs' Japanese learning beyond classroom-Locus of control 53
Table 4.3.1 HAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class English- learning activities 56
Table 4.3.2 LAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class English-learning activities 57
Table 4.3.3 HAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class Japanese learning activities 58
Table 4.3.4 LAoE learners’ use of learning strategies in out-of-class Japanese learning activities 59

List of Figures
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Figure 5.1 Key elements and characteristics of DMCs 71
Figure 5.2 Key features of LBC of all participants--- English learning 79
Figure 5.3 Key features of LBC of all participants--- Japanese learning 80
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