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研究生:蔡雯珊
研究生(外文):CAI, WEN-SHAN
論文名稱:調氣技術延長截切萵苣與小黃瓜架售期
論文名稱(外文):Use of modified atmosphere technology to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut cucumber and lettuce
指導教授:陳政雄陳政雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN, SHAUN
口試委員:蔣丙煌、陳輝煌、馮臨惠、劉佳玲
口試委員(外文):CHIANG, BEEG-HUANG、CHEN, HUI-HUANG、FERNG, LIN-HUEI、LIU, CHIA-LING
口試日期:2020-12-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:生鮮截切蔬菜萵苣小黃瓜調氣包裝呼吸速率品質指標活化能
外文關鍵詞:Fresh-cut vegetableslettucecucumbermodified atmosphere packagingrespiration ratequality attributeskinetics
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截切蔬菜因組織遭受破壞,導致生理代謝反應加速,因此保存期限較短。本研究目的利用調氣技術控制截切蔬菜呼吸速率,延緩品質劣變,進而達成延長保存期限的效果。研究利用呼吸箱進行截切蔬菜5-35°C密閉系統儲藏,分析其呼吸速率、重量損失、色澤、硬度、微生物,評估在各溫度下品質指標劣變速率及計算活化能。並於5°C利用3-10% O2/3-10% CO2動態調氣系統,評估氣體環境的影響,用以後續MAP截切蔬菜參考。結果顯示,密閉系統中截切小黃瓜和萵苣的呼吸速率、重量損失、硬度下降和顏色改變,與溫度及時間呈正相關,兩者品質指標活化能分別在55〜122 KJ / mol和41〜69 KJ / mol之間。其中,小黃瓜的硬度下降和萵苣的褐變較易受溫度到影響。在5°C動態調氣儲藏,小黃瓜和萵苣分別在3% O2/3% CO2和10% O2/10% CO2品質較佳。參照品質劣變動力學和動態調氣儲藏結果,將截切小黃瓜包裝充入1.5% O2/3.6% CO2,萵苣6% O2/10% CO2進行主動調氣,後包裝袋的被動通透1天內達到所需氣體組成,儲藏於5°C結果顯示經主動調氣包裝,具較低的呼吸速率、硬度損失,褐變發生和大腸菌生長,可延長保存期限至9天,相較未處理 (5°C密閉系統) 儲藏期約4天,調氣後延長一倍效期。
Fresh-cut vegetables are difficult to achieve a long shelf life, this is due to the greater physiological metabolic processes after post-harvest. The present study aimed to apply modified atmosphere technology to control respiration rate, and suppress the deterioration of quality attributes, thus, extend the shelf life. A respiratory chamber was constructed and used to determine respiration rate, weight loss, appearance color, and firmness during storage in closed system at 5~35°C, as well as the activation energy values used to analyze the effect of storage temperature on the quality change. Additionally, continued gas-flow (3-10% O2 / 3-10% CO2) was employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the atmosphere and then applied to MAP fresh-cut vegetables. The closed system results showed that respiratory rate, weight loss, texture degradation, and discoloration were related to temperature and time, and the activation energy of physiological reactions was determined between 55~120 KJ/mol and 40~65 KJ/mol for fresh-cut cucumber and lettuce, respectively. Among the quality changes, the texture softening of cucumber and browning of lettuce were more susceptible to high-temperature conditions. Under the dynamic flow-through atmosphere at 5°C, less senescence was found at 3% O2 / 3% CO2 and 10% O2 / 10% CO2 for cucumber and lettuce, respectively. Based on the kinetic analyses and optimal gas compositions, modified atmosphere conditions of 1.5% O2 / 3.6% CO2 and 6% O2 / 10% CO2 were used to store cucumber and lettuce, respectively, and allowed to reach passive modification in a permeable pouch for one day. At 5°C, samples in the MAP showed slower respiration rates, less hardness loss, less surface discoloration, and fewer coliform growth compared to in air as controls, thus, prolonged to 9 days shelf life was obtained. Conclusively, compared with untreated (5°C closed system), the shelf life is 4 days, and the use of MAP functions to extend double shelf life of fresh-cut vegetable products at refrigeration.
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
一、 調氣包裝 (modified atmosphere package, MAP) 3
(一) 調氣方式 3
1. 主動調氣 3
2. 被動調氣 3
(二) 氣體組成 4
(三) 生鮮蔬果應用 6
二、 生鮮截切蔬果 11
(一) 生菜沙拉 12
1. 萵苣 (Lactuca sativa L.) 12
2. 小黃瓜 (Cucumis sativus L.) 13
(二) 影響截切蔬菜品質之因素 14
1. 呼吸作用 15
2. 蒸散作用 20
3. 褐變 23
4. 質地 27
5. 微生物 29
三、 化學反應動力學 32
(一) 活化能 (Activation energy, Ea) 33
第三章 研究目的及實驗架構 37
一、 研究目的 37
二、 實驗架構 38
第四章 材料與方法 39
一、 實驗材料 39
(一) 儀器與設備 39
(二) 化學藥品 40
(三) 混合氣體 40
(四) 截切蔬菜樣本 41
(五) 呼吸箱系統 42
二、 實驗方法 44
(一) 儲藏試驗 44
1. 蔬菜樣本處理 44
2. 密閉系統儲藏(closed system storage) 44
3. 動態系統儲藏(dynamic modified atmosphere system storage) 45
4. 調氣軟袋包裝儲藏(MAP flexible packaging storage) 46
(二) 呼吸速率測定 52
1. 密閉系統(closed system) 52
2. 動態系統(dynamic system) 53
3. 調氣軟袋包裝(MAP flexible packaging) 55
(三) 失重率 56
(四) 質地變化 56
(五) 色澤測定 57
(六) 微生物分析 (Aerobic count plates, ACP) 58
(七) 動力學分析 59
三、 統計分析 60
第五章 結果與討論 61
一、 密閉系統-小黃瓜品質監測 61
(一) 上部空隙氣體 61
(二) 小黃瓜重量損失 65
(三) 小黃瓜硬度變化 67
(四) 小黃瓜色澤變化 70
(五) 小黃瓜總生菌數 73
二、 密閉系統-萵苣品質監測 76
(一) 上部空隙氣體 76
(二) 萵苣重量損失 79
(三) 萵苣硬度變化 81
(四) 萵苣色澤變化 84
(五) 萵苣總生菌數 89
三、 密閉系統之品質活化能 91
四、 通氣系統-小黃瓜品質監測 93
(一) 小黃瓜呼吸速率 93
(二) 小黃瓜重量損失 96
(三) 小黃瓜硬度 98
(四) 小黃瓜色澤變化 100
(五) 小黃瓜總生菌數 102
五、 調氣軟袋包裝-小黃瓜品質監測 106
(一) 小黃瓜上部空隙氣體 106
(二) 小黃瓜硬度 110
(三) 小黃瓜色澤 110
(四) 小黃瓜微生物 113
六、 通氣系統-萵苣品質監測 115
(一) 萵苣呼吸速率 115
(二) 萵苣重量損失 115
(三) 萵苣硬度 119
(四) 萵苣色澤變化 122
(五) 萵苣總生菌數 128
七、 調氣軟袋包裝-萵苣品質監測 131
(一) 上部空隙氣體 131
(二) 萵苣色澤 135
(三) 萵苣微生物 142
第六章 結論 144
第七章 參考文獻 145

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