跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.221.73.157) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/17 21:48
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:凌旺楨
研究生(外文):Ling, Wang-Chen
論文名稱:英語與華語歌曲中語言與音樂之關係:音段、節奏與聲調
論文名稱(外文):The Connection Between Language and Music in English and Mandarin Songs: Segment, Rhythm, and Tone
指導教授:蕭宇超蕭宇超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao, Yuchau E.
口試委員:黃慧娟林蕙珊歐淑珍吳貞慧
口試委員(外文):Huang, Hui-Chuan J.Lin, Hui-ShanOu, Shu-ChenWu, Chen-Huei
口試日期:2020-06-13
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:音樂與語言的對應感知語法詞彙連結韻律結構子音串優選理論
外文關鍵詞:Language-music mappingPerception grammarLexical associationProsodic structureConsonant clusterOptimality Theory
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:638
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:79
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本論文以優選理論(Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004)分析英語及華語歌曲中音樂與語言的互動關係,並由音段、節奏與聲調三方面切入探討。本文首先研究語言到音樂的對應,檢視華語成人如何將自己說出的英語聲母子音串,以及韻尾子音串,感知進入音樂中唱出。研究結果顯示音樂節拍會導致唱的音段與唸的音段不同。此外,本文也討論作曲者如何將華語兒歌歌詞韻律結構,包含音步(foot)及語調詞組(intonational phrase),感知進入音樂之中。本文發現韻律結構會與音樂旋律對整、並影響音樂節拍的指派。

音樂到語言的對應則是觀察華語兒童聽華語歌曲時,如何將音樂旋律感知為語言聲調,並說出其所聽到的音節聲調。結果顯示兒童所感知的語言聲調與歌曲旋律相近。然而所產出的聲調則因心理詞彙的連結與否,而可能造成產出與感知的聲調不同。

節奏的對應與音段的改變,顯示語言到音樂的感知語法具有重要角色。兒童產出聲調與感知聲調的不同,亦可驗證感知與產出係由獨立不同的語法所管理。
This study aims to investigate the relationship between language and music through segment, rhythm, and tone in English and Mandarin songs. The language-music mappings are analyzed under the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004).

This research first examines the language-to-music mapping through Mandarin-accented English in reading and singing. This study discusses how onset and coda clusters are produced in the linguistic output, and how the linguistic output is perceived into music. Segmental changes are shown in the language-to-music mapping, where beat assignment takes place and affects the linguistic output form. The language-to-music mapping is also explored through the composing of Mandarin children’s songs. This study finds that the prosodic structures of foot and intonational phrase in Mandarin children’s songs are aligned with music structures. Footing and intonational phrasing also affect the musical beat assignment.

The music-to-language mapping is examined through children’s perception of the musical melody in songs. The issue lies in how native Mandarin-speaking children map the music pitches to Mandarin tones, and how they produce what they hear. In the perception of the musical pitches, singing words or phrases are perceived into the linguistic input forms with similar tonal values. However, the children may produce syllables whose tones are different from what they perceive because of lexical association.

This research provides an extensive study on the interaction between language and music. Segmental changes, rhythmic correspondences, and tonal adjustments in language-music mapping reveal that perception and production are governed by independent phonological grammars.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research issue 1
1.2 The Proposed Model 2
1.3 Organization 3

Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Music-Language Connection 5
2.2 Perception Grammar 8
2.3 Prosodic Phonology 11
2.3.1 The Prosodic Hierarchy 11
2.3.2 Intonational Phrase 12
2.3.3 Foot Formation Rule 16
2.4 Optimality Theory 20
2.4.1 Faithfulness Constraints and Markedness Constraints 21
2.4.2 Generalized Alignment 22
2.4.3 Stratal OT 23
2.4.4 Local Conjunction 24

Chapter 3 Language-to-Music Mapping: Onset Cluster 26
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Data Design 27
3.2.1 Step 1: Reading 27
3.2.2 Step 2: Singing 30
3.3 Language-to-Music Mapping 32
3.4 LI-to-LO Mapping: Production Grammar 34
3.5 LO-to-MI Mapping: Perception Grammar 37
3.5.1 LO1-to-MI Mapping 37
3.5.2 LO2-to-MI Mapping 39
3.6 MI-to-MO Mapping: Production Grammar 42
3.7 Summary 44

Chapter 4 Language-to-Music Mapping: Coda Cluster 46
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Data Design 46
4.2.1 Step 1: Reading 47
4.2.2 Step 2: Singing 49
4.3 Language-to-music Mapping 51
4.4 LI-to-LO Mapping: Production Grammar 52
4.5 LO-to-MI Mapping: Perception Grammar 54
4.5.1 LO1-to-MI Mapping 54
4.5.2 LO2-to-MI Mapping 57
4.6 MI-to-MO Mapping: Production Grammar 59
4.7 Summary 60

Chapter 5 Language-to-Music Mapping: Foot and Musical Beat Assignment 62
5.1 Introduction 62
5.2 LI-to-LO Mapping: Foot Formation 63
5.3 LO-to-MI Mapping: Footing and Musical Beat Assignment 70
5.3.1 Some Musical Basics 70
5.3.2 Musical Beat Assignment 72
5.4 MI-to-MO Mapping: Prosody Removal and Association Faithfulness 76
5.5 Summary 79

Chapter 6 Language-to-Music Mapping: IP and Musical Beat Assignment 81
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 LI-to-LO Mapping: intonational phrasing 82
6.3 LO-to-MI Mapping: IP and Musical Beat Assignment 83
6.3.1 Edge alignment between IP and Musical Measure 83
6.3.2 IP-final Lengthening and Musical Accent 89
6.4 MI-to-MO Mapping: Prosody Removal and Association Faithfulness 94
6.5 Summary 95

Chapter 7 Music-to-Language Mapping: Tone and Term association 98
7.1 Introduction 98
7.2 Some Basics and the Proposed Corresponding Principles 98
7.3 Data Design 101
7.4 Musical Pitch to Linguistic Tone Mapping 103
7.4.1 Type 1 Operation 105
7.4.2 Type 2 Operation 107
7.5 MO-to-LI Mapping: Pitch Perception 108
7.5.1 Falling Contour 108
7.5.2 Rising Contour 111
7.5.3 Level Contour 112
7.6 LI-to-LO Mapping: Type 1 Operation 114
7.7 LI-to-LO Mapping: Type 2 Operation 116
7.8 Summary 117

Chapter 8 Music-to-Language Mapping: Tone and Markedness 119
8.1 Introduction 119
8.2 Data Design 119
8.3 Musical Pitch to Linguistic Tone Mapping 120
8.3.1 Type 3a Operation 122
8.3.2 Type 3b Operation 124
8.4 MO-to-LI Mapping: Pitch Perception 125
8.5 LI-to-LO Mapping: Type 3a Operation 126
8.6 LI-to-LO Mapping: Type 3b Operation 127
8.7 Summary 130

Chapter 9 Conclusion and Further Issue 131
9.1 Conclusion 131
9.2 Further Issue 136

Bibliography 138
English References:
Bermúdez-Otero, R. (1999). Constraint interaction in language change: quantity in English and Germanic (doctoral dissertation). University of Manchester, UK.
Bermúdez-Otero, R. (2007). Diachronic phonology. In P. de Lacy (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of phonology (pp. 497-517). Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.
Boersma, P. (2001). Phonology-semantics interaction in OT, and its acquisition. In R. Kirchner, W. Wikeley and J. Pater (Ed.), Papers in experimental and theoretical linguistics, 6, 24-35. Edmonton: University of Alberta.
Booij, G. E. & Rubach, J. (1987). Postcyclic versus postlexical rules in lexical phonology. Linguistic Inquiry, 18 (1), 1-44.
Broselow, E., and Finer, D. (1991). Parameter setting gin second language phonology and syntax. Second Language Research, 7, 35-59.
Carr, P. (1993). Phonology. New York: St. Martins Press.
Chao, Y. R. (1930). A system of tone letters. Le Maître Phonétique, 45, 24-27.
Chen, M. (1984). Unfolding Latent Principles of Literary Taste: Poetry as a Window onto Language. Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies, 16, 203-240.
Downing, B. (1970). Syntactic Structure and Phonological Phrasing in English (doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Austin, Austin.
Downing, B. (1973). Parenthesization Rules and Obligatory Phrasing. Papers in Linguistic, 6, 108-128.
Goldsmith, J. A. (1976). Autosegmental Phonology (doctoral dissertation). MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
Green, T. (1993). The conspiracy of completeness. Paper presented at Rutgers Optimality Workshop1.
Halle, J. & Lerdahl F. (1993). A generative textsetting model. Current Musicology, 55, 3-23.
Hayes, B. (2005). Textsetting as constraint conflict. In J.-L. Aroui and A. Arleo (Eds.), Towards a typology of poetic form (pp. 43-61). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1967). Intonation and grammar in British English. The Hague: Mouton.
Hsiao, Y. E. (1991). Syntax, rhythm and tone: a triangular relationship. Taipei: The Crane Publishing.
Hsiao, Y. E. (2006). The metrical structure of Changhua folk verse. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics, 32 (1), 1-29.
Hsiao, Y. E. (2007). The metrical structure of Taiwanese nursery rhymes: a corpus study. In D. L. Hoover and S. Lattig (Eds.), Stylistics: prospect & retrospect (pp. 85-106). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Hsiao, Y. E. (2015). Tonal chain shifts in Taiwanese: a comparative markedness approach. In Y. E. Hsiao, L.-H. Wee (Eds.), Capturing phonological shades within and across languages (pp. 142-165). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Inkelas, S. (1989). Prosodic constituency in the lexicon (doctoral dissertation). Stanford University, Stanford.
Ito, J., Kubozono, H., Mester, A. & Tanaka, S. (2019). Kattobase: the linguistic structure of Japanese baseball chants. In K. Hout, A. Mai, A. McCollum, S. Rose, and M. Zaslansky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Meetings on Phonology. Tokyo, Japan: Kurosio Publishing.
Jespersen, O. (1904). Lehrbuch der phonetik. Leipzig: Teubner.
Kager, R. (1999). Optimality theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kenstowicz, M. (2003). The role of perception in loanword phonology. A review of Les emprunts linguistiques d’origine europénne en Fon by Flavien Gbéto Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. 2000. Studies in African Linguistics, 32, 95-112.
Kiparsky, P. (1982). From cyclic phonology to lexical phonology. In H. van der Hulst, N. Smith (Eds.), The structure of phonological representations (PartI) (pp. 131-175). Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Kiparsky, Paul. (2010). Reduplication in stratal OT. In L. Uyechi and L.-H. Wee (Eds.), Reality exploration and discovery: pattern interaction in language & Life (pp. 125-142.).
Leben, W. R. (1973). Suprasegmental phonology (doctoral dissertation). MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
Lerdahl, F. & Jackendoff, R. (1983). A generative rheory of tonal music. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Lindblom, B. (1978). Final lengthening in speech and music. In E.Gårding, G. Bruce, and R. Bannert (Eds.), Nordic prosody: papers from a symposium (pp.85-102). Lund: Department of Linguistics, Lund University
Łubowicz, A. (2002). Derived environment effects in optimality theory. Lingua, 112 (4), 243-280
Łubowicz, A. (2005). Locality of conjunction. In J. D. Alderete, C. Hang and A. Kochetov (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (pp. 254-262). Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
McCarthy, J. J. and Prince, A. (1995). Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In: B. Jill, L. Walsh Dickey, and S. Urbanczyk (Eds.), University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18 (pp.249-384). Amherst, MA: GLSA Publications.
McCarthy, J. J. and Prince, A. (1999). Faithfulness and identity in prosodic morphology. In R. Kager, H. van der Hulst, and W. Zonneveld (Eds.), The Prosody–Morphology Interface (pp. 218-309). Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press. [Excerpted in John J. McCarthy (Ed.) Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader, Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell (2004).]
Mohanan, K. P. (1982). Lexical Phonology (doctoral dissertation). MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
Morris, R. E. (2002). Coda obstruents and local constraint conjunction in North-Central Peninsular Spanish. In T. Satterfield, C. Tortora and D. Cresti (Eds.), Current issues in Romance Languages (pp. 207-224). The Netherlands: John Benjamins B.V.
Nespor, M., and Irene Vo. (1986). Prosodic phonology (doctoral dissertation). Dordrecht: Foris.
Prince, A., and Smolensky, P. (1993). Optimality theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Manuscript. Rutgers University.
Prince, A. and Smolensky, P. (2004). Optimality theory: constraint interaction and generative grammar. Blackwell Publishing.
Schellenberg, M. (2009). Singing in a tone language: Shona. In A. Ojo and L. Moshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics (pp. 137-144). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Schreuder, M. (2006). Prosodic Processes in Language and Music (doctoral dissertation). Research School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences (BCN), Groningen.
Selkirk, E. (1980). Prosodic domains in phonology: Sanskrit revisited. In M. Aronoff and M.-L. Kean (Eds.), Juncture (pp. 107-129). Saratoga, CA: Anma Libri.
Selkirk, E. (1984). Phonology and syntax: the relation between sound and structure. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Shih, C. L. (1986). The Prosodic Domain of Tone Sandhi in Chinese. San Diego: University of California dissertation.
Sievers, E. (1881). Grundzüge der Phonetik. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf and Hartel.
Silverman, D. (1992). Multiple scansions in loanword phonology: evidence from Cantonese. Phonology, 9, 289-328.
Smolensky, P. (1995) On the internal structure of the constraint component CON of
UG. Handout presented in the University of Arizona.
Smolensky, P. (1996). On the comprehension/production dilemma in child language. Linguistic Inquiry, 27, 720-731.
Sundberg, J and Lindblom, B. (1991). Generative theories for describing musical structure. In P. Howell, R. West, and I. Cross (Eds.), Representing musical structure (pp. 245-272). London: Academic Press.
Wee, L. H. (2002). Of chains and weights. Handout for seminar series Grammaticality of the Fittest, City University of Hong Kong.
Wee, L. H. (2007). Unraveling the relation between Mandarin tones and musical melody. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 35, 128-144.
Wong, P. and Diehl, R. (2002). How can the lyrics of a song in a tone language be understood? Psychology of Music, 30, 202-209.
Yip, M. (1989). Hanyu fangyan gaiyao [An introduction to Chinese dialects]. 2nd edn. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe.
Yip, M. (1993). Cantonese loanword phonology and optimality theory. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 1 (1), 261-291.
Yip, M. (2007). Tone. In P. de Lacy (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of phonology (pp. 229-252). Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.

Chinese References:
方金雅、蘇姿云 (Fang and Su 2005)。童謠教學對幼兒聲韻覺識影響之研究。高雄師大學報:教育與社會科學類,19,1-19。
李金青 (Li 2009)。兒歌的韻律研究 (碩士論文),國立臺東大學,臺東。
李紫蓉、楊麗鈴 (2007)。手指遊戲動動兒歌-小猴子。臺北:信誼基金出版社。
李紫蓉、朱雲嵩、林炳興、張硯田、蘇珊。(2011)。早安晚安:給0~3歲的自理兒歌。臺北:信誼基金出版社。
李紫蓉、鄭榮珍、張麗雪、蘇珊、張硯田、陳中申 (2014)。小雨滴。臺北:信誼基金出版社。
李紫蓉、林世仁、蘇珊 (2017)。1234動動體操。臺北:信誼基金出版社。
宋凱琳 (Sung 2012)。從優選理論看語言與音樂的互動:從詩經入樂談起。華語文教學研究,9 (4),17-39。
林清山 (Lin 1968)。男女學前兒童語言發展各變數的比較研究。心理與教育,2,121-137。
林蕙珊 (Lin 2001)。從「優選理論」來談國語的三聲變調。聲韻論叢,10,497-524。
黃婷 (Huang 2007)。華語手指謠之韻律研究。華語文教學研究,4 (2),29-42。
劉惠美、曹峰銘 (Liu and Tsao 2010)。華語嬰幼兒溝通發展量表。臺北:心理。
劉惠美、陳昱君(Liu and Chen 2015)。華語嬰幼兒表達性詞彙的語意內容及詞類組成之發展。教育心理學報,47 (2),217-242。
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top