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研究生:王博軒
研究生(外文):Po-Hsuan Wang
論文名稱:利用統計方法結合穩定同位素與微量元素辨識茶葉與大蒜產地來源
論文名稱(外文):Identify the geographical origins of tea and garlic by statistical methods using stable isotopes and chemical profiling by statistical methods
指導教授:彭宗仁彭宗仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Ren Peng
口試委員:呂秀英林金源郭寶錚王珮玲
口試日期:2020-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土壤環境科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:穩定同位素硫同位素微量元素大蒜茶葉產地鑑定主成分分析對應分析判別分析
外文關鍵詞:stable isotopestrace elementsgarlicteaorigin identificationprincipal component analysiscorrespondents analysisdiscriminant analysis
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農產品的不實地理標籤是一個很嚴重的問題,它不僅圖利不肖廠商,也侵犯消費者的權益,因此尋找公正客觀且正確的產地鑑定技術一直是我們的目標。農產品的營養會因為生長環境、氣候條件、栽培方法及其他人為因素造成穩定同位素以及微量元素的組成不同,但相同的產品可能無法透過肉眼觀察到不同產地之間的差異。本實驗室在上一階段利用氫、氧、碳、氮同位素與22種微量元素試圖區分大蒜產地來源,本階段將進一步利用穩定同位素分析及31種微量元素,結合主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis)、對應分析(Correspondence analysis)判別分析(Discriminant Analysis)之多變量統計方法,嘗試區分茶葉與大蒜地理來源,並評估硫同位素在產地鑑定上的可行性,證明農產品的產地鑑定可以應用此方法。研究收集來自台灣、中國、越南、泰國及印尼的茶葉進行產地鑑定,並利用阿根廷、韓國、中國及越南的大蒜數據證明此方法的可行性。同位素分析結果顯示茶葉則是難以僅透過穩定同位素或是微量元素分析發現到其產地特徵。大蒜氫、氧穩定同位素具有區分阿根廷和亞洲地區的大蒜,台灣的硫穩定同位素則是明顯低於其他地區,因此硫穩定同位素在產地鑑定上應有一定的影響力。研究首先利用主成分分析與對應分析篩選變量後進行判別分析以建立不同產地之判別函數,結果發現茶葉的整體判別率達到91.8%,大蒜樣品則是達到96.2%。研究結果顯示了透過穩定同位素分析及微量元素分析結合判別分析能夠有效的區分大蒜及茶葉之產地來源,此技術將能夠幫助未來其他農產品產地鑑定或是食品摻假行為的認證。
The unrealistic geographic labeling of agricultural products is a very serious problem. It not only infringes on the manufacturers, but also infringes on the rights and interests of consumers. Therefore, it is always our goal to find a fair, objective and correct provenance technology. The nutrition of agricultural products will be different due to the growth environment, climatic conditions, cultivation methods, and other factors, but the composition of stable isotopes and trace elements will be different. The study uses stable isotope analysis and 31 kinds of trace elements in combination with principal components analysis, correspondence analysis and discriminant analysis for data statistics. It attempts to distinguish the geographic origin of garlic and tea, and proves that this method can be applied to the identification of agricultural products. The study collected tea from Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia, and garlic from Taiwan, Argentina, South Korea, China, and Vietnam. The isotope analysis results showed that the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes of garlic can distinguish garlic from Argentina and Asia, while the sulfur stable isotopes of Taiwan are significantly lower than other regions. Tea can''t be found by its stable isotope or trace element analysis. Further use of principal component analysis and corresponding analysis to select variables for discriminant analysis, the discriminant rate of tea reached 91%; garlic samples reached 95%. The research results show that through stable isotope analysis and trace element analysis combined with discriminant analysis can effectively distinguish the origin of garlic and tea, this technology will be able to help the identification of other agricultural products in the future or the certification of food adulteration.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 緣起 1
1-2茶葉性質背景 2
1-2-1茶葉栽培特性 2
1-2-2茶葉市場現況 2
1-2-3茶葉產地鑑別方法 3
1-3 大蒜性質背景 3
1-3-1 大蒜栽培特性 3
1-3-2 大蒜市場現況 4
1-3-3 大蒜產地鑑別方法 5
1-4穩定同位素與微量元素分析 6
1-5多變量分析 6
1-6前人研究 7
1-7研究目的 8
第二章 研究原理 10
2-1 穩定同位素 10
2-1-1 穩定同位素原理 10
2-1-2 氫、氧、碳、氮同位素 13
2-1-3 硫同位素 15
2-2 微量元素 18
第三章 材料與方法 19
3-1樣品收集 19
3-1-1 茶葉樣品收集 19
3-1-2大蒜樣品收集 20
3-2樣品前處理 22
3-2-1茶葉樣品前處理 22
3-2-2大蒜樣品前處理 22
3-3穩定同位素分析 22
3-3-1穩定同位素比值質譜儀 22
3-3-2氫、氧穩定同位素分析 24
3-3-3碳、氮、硫穩定同位素分析 25
3-4元素分析 27
3-5統計方法 28
3-5-1 主成分分析 (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) 28
3-5-2 對應分析(Correspondence analysis, COA) 29
3-5-3 變異係數(Coefficient of variation, CV) 29
3-5-4 判別分析(Discriminant Analysis, DA) 30
第四章 結果與討論 31
4-1 茶葉樣品分析結果 31
4-1-1 茶葉樣品穩定同位素分析結果 31
4-1-2 茶葉樣品元素分析結果 33
4-1-3 茶葉穩定同位素與產地關係探討 33
4-2 大蒜樣品分析結果 34
4-2-1 大蒜樣品同位素分析結果 34
4-2-2 大蒜樣品元素分析結果 39
4-2-3 大蒜氫、氧穩定同位素與產地關係探討 40
4-2-4 大蒜碳、氮穩定同位素與產地關係探討 41
4-2-5 大蒜硫穩定同位素與產地關係探討 42
4-3 茶葉統計分析結果 44
4-3-1 茶葉主成分分析結果 44
4-3-2 茶葉對應分析結果 46
4-3-3 茶葉變異係數結果 48
4-3-4 茶葉判別分析結果 50
4-4 大蒜統計分析結果 56
4-4-1 大蒜對應分析結果 56
4-4-2 大蒜變異係數結果 59
4-4-3大蒜判別分析結果 61
第五章 結論 67
參考文獻 69
附錄 75 
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