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研究生:王政玠
研究生(外文):Cheng-Chieh Wang
論文名稱:論亞拉文.雅迪嘉《白老虎》中的種姓與暴力
論文名稱(外文):Caste and Violence in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger
指導教授:陳淑卿陳淑卿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Ching Chen
口試委員:林建光洪敏秀
口試委員(外文):Jiann-Guang LinMin-Hsiou Hung
口試日期:2019-11-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:種姓制度國家機器圓形監獄暴力
外文關鍵詞:caste systemstate apparatusespanopticonviolence
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本篇論文主要探討的是作家亞拉文.雅迪嘉的小說《白老虎》中的種姓制度與暴力。在故事中雅迪嘉藉由上層種姓印度人與下層種性印度人的結構關係,揭露獨立後印度仍存在一種不平等的結構對立。其主要問題就是印度延續了以種姓制度管理他們內部人。種姓制度的的操作下,人與人之間繼續著階級對立的關係,這種牢不可破的制度正在撕裂人與人之間的聯繫。本篇論文分文三章,主要探討印度人彼此的關係是如何在種姓制度底下建立,並分析小說中的暴力。第一章首先談論印度如何延續英國殖民統治的治理,合理化上層階級如何宰制下層階級,本章也會描述種姓制度的階級結構,並描述印度因種姓制度產生出的問題,例如:貧窮、貪汙、迫害、人權問題。第二章將談論種姓制度是透過甚麼機制運作,種姓制度之所以能運作是因為有一種雙重意識形態的操作。我會用路易.皮埃爾.阿圖色的理論《意識形態與意識形態國家機器》來分析。而在雙重的國家機器操作下,就如同米歇爾.傅柯所說的圓形監獄一樣,小說《白老虎》中,每個人正在互相監視。第三章將探討暴力,透過暴力,下層種姓的確可以自我解放,但是卻背負著罪惡感。是否有一種暴力是可以被接受的。最後小說結尾看似提出一個新的可能性。
This thesis examines the caste system and violence in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger. In the novel, Adiga reveals that there is still an unequal structural opposition in India after India gained independence. Indians are divided into upper caste and lower caste because India continues the caste system to manage their compatriots. Under the operation of the caste system, the relationship between people remains a hierarchical opposition. The body of the thesis is comprised of three chapters that mainly examines how the relationship between Indians is established under the caste system and analyzes the violence in the novel. The first chapter explores how India continues the governance of British colonial rule and rationalizes how the upper castes dominate the lower castes. This chapter also examines the hierarchical structure of the caste system which divides Indians into four castes and the subalterns who are excluded from the caste system, and I will exemplify the problems that arise in India caused by the caste system, such as poverty, corruption, oppression, and human rights issues. The second chapter analyzes how the caste system functions. The caste system works because there are dual ideologies. Drawing upon Louis Pierre Althusser’s theory, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, the chapter explores the functions of repressive and ideological state Apparatuses on the caste system. Therefore, under the manipulation of the two state apparatuses, following Michel Foucault’s observation, the society is like a panopticon in which everyone is monitoring each other in The White Tiger. The third chapter explores violence as form of resistance according to Frantz Fanon. Through violence, the lower caste can liberate themselves and reach self-actualization, but they are not without senses of guilt. Is there a kind of violence that is acceptable? In the end of the novel, the protagonist seems to present a new possibility.
Table of Contents

Introduction 01

Chapter One: Representing India 10
The Post-independent India 10
The Caste in India 17
A Problematic Society: Poverty and Corruption 22
Human Rights and Oppressions 28

Chapter Two: The Dominating Power and Control in a Caste Society 35
Castes and Ideological Construction of Indians 35
Ideological State Apparatus 40
The Rooster Coop as a Panopticon 48

Chapter Three: A Violent White Tiger Questing for Freedom 55
Violence and Autonomy 55
The Encounter with The White Tiger 61
The New Master: Balram’s Success 62
The Postcolonial Bildungroman 70

Conclusion 80
Appendix 82
Works Cited 83
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