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研究生:許閔皓
研究生(外文):Min-Hao Hsu
論文名稱:台灣與離島蜥蜴跨海散佈可能性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The possibilities of over-ocean dispersal in lizards of Taiwan and the adjacent islands
指導教授:黃文山黃文山引用關係
口試委員:關永才林惠真
口試日期:2019-12-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生命科學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:40
中文關鍵詞:跨海散佈鹽度耐受性水損失存活率蜥蜴散布路徑
外文關鍵詞:cross-ocean dispersalsaltwater tolerancewater losssurvival ratelizardsdispersal route
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對於非海洋生物而言,跨海需要面臨到脫水和高鹽度的挑戰,因此,失水率和鹽度耐受性決定了跨海散佈的能力並進一步影響了物種分布。然而,陸生脊椎動物的生理和生態之間的關聯性很少被探討。因此,我使用了在台灣和離島具有不同分布的蜥蜴物種來探討是否生理反應能反映地理分布。為了測試蜥蜴的失水率和鹽度耐受性,我將四種原生種—麗紋石龍子(Plestiodon elegans)、長尾南蜥(Eutropis longicaudata)、斯文豪氏攀蜥(Diploderma swinhonis)和疣尾蝎虎(Hemidactylus frenatus)—和二種外來種—多線南蜥(E. multifasciata)沙氏變色蜥(Anolis sagrei)—的個體(成體和幼體)和蛋進行浸泡實驗。對於蜥蜴個體,結果顯示P. elegans有最高的失水率和最低的鹽度耐受性,而E. longicaudata和E. multifasciata有最低的失水率和最高的鹽度耐受性。D. swinhonis、H. frenatus和A. sagrei則是介於前述三者的中間。在蛋的部分,只有H. frenatus的硬殼蛋不會受到海水浸泡的影響且浸泡後能成功孵化。水損失和鹽度耐受性的種間差異顯示了蜥蜴之間跨海散佈能力的異質性。在結合古地質和每種物種的起源區域後,本結果能解釋這些蜥蜴在台灣和離島的現在分布。此外,此研究也提供了兩種入侵種在散佈和防治上的建議。
For non-marine organisms, crossing the sea needs to face the challenge of dehydration and hypersalinity, thus the rate of water loss and the saltwater tolerance determine the ability of over-sea dispersal and further influence species distribution. However, surprisingly, such association between physiology and ecology has rarely explored in terrestrial vertebrates. Here I studied the lizard species differently distribute across Taiwan and the adjacent islands to know if these physiological responses reflect the geographical distribution. I performed immersion experiments to the individuals, eggs and hatchlings to test the rate of water loss and the saltwater tolerance in the six chosen species, four natives (Plestiodon elegans, Eutropis longicaudata, Diploderma swinhonis, and Hemidactylus frenatus) and two introduced species (E. multifasciata and Anolis sagrei). For the individuals, the results showed that P. elegans had the highest rate of water loss and the lowest saltwater tolerance, whereas E. longicaudata and E. multifasciata showed the lowest rate of water loss and the highest saltwater tolerance. D. swinhonis, H. frenatus, and A. sagrei had medium measurements comparing to the aforementioned species. On the other hand, for the eggs, only the rigid-shelled eggs of H. frenatus did not influenced by the water immersion and were incubated successfully after experimental treatment. In contrast, the parchment-shelled eggs of E. longicaudata and D. swinhonis lost or gained water dramatically in the experiments and none of them hatched after immersion. These interspecies differences in water loss and saltwater tolerance strongly suggest the heterogeneity of over-ocean dispersal ability among these lizards. Combining to the historical geology and the origin areas of each species, the inferences of the results majorly explains the current distribution of these lizards across Taiwan and the adjacent islands. Besides, this study also provides insights to the two invasive species, E. multifasciata and A. sagrei, for further dispersal and conservation aspects.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Content iv
List of Tables v
List of Figures vi
Introduction 1
Material and Methods 6
1.Sample collection and Husbandry 6
2. Water immersion experiment 7
3.Statistical analysis 8
Results 11
1.Rate of water loss of lizards 11
2.Survival rate of lizards 11
3.Rate of water loss of eggs 12
4.Hatching rate of eggs 13
Discussion 14
1.Saltwater tolerance among species 14
2.Water loss among species 16
3.Interpretation to current distribution and dispersal routes in the native species 17
4.Interpretation to current distribution and dispersal routes in the introduced species 20
5.Defect in experiment 21
6.Conclusion 22
References 23
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