跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.38.248) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/11/27 00:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李佳馨
研究生(外文):Chia-Xin Lee
論文名稱:含低密度脂蛋白與還原型穀胱甘肽之冷凍稀釋液對荷蘭種公牛精液冷凍解凍後品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Low Density Lipoprotein and Reduced Glutathione in Cryo-Extnder on Frozen-Thawed Semen Quality of Holstein Bulls
指導教授:唐品琦
指導教授(外文):Pin-Chi Tang
口試委員:沈朋志陳立人
口試日期:2020-01-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:荷蘭公牛低密度脂蛋白還原型穀胱甘肽冷凍稀釋液植物性稀釋液
外文關鍵詞:Holstein bulllow density lipoproteinsreduced glutathionecryopreservationplant-based extender
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:85
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
精子冷凍保存技術之建立為動物生殖科技的基礎,精子在冷凍保存過程常造成精子冷凍傷害,進而使精子受精率低下,故冷凍保護劑之組成與成分之比例更顯重要。近年來已有許多學者提出蛋黃稀釋液之負面效應,如蛋黃會促進細菌與微生物孳生、蛋黃中之顆粒物質會阻礙精子代謝轉換作用以及干擾精子生化檢驗分析結果等問題,雖然目前亦已開發植物性稀釋液(plant- based semen diluents),然而有些學者提出植物性稀釋液會降低冷凍解凍後精子之生育率,因此這些稀釋液仍未被普遍接受。本研究旨在探討冷凍保護劑中所添加不同濃度之低密度脂蛋白(low density lipoprotein, LDL)以及還原型穀胱甘肽(reduced glutathione, GSH)對臺灣荷蘭種公牛冷凍解凍後精液品質之影響,並進一步比較本試驗之LDL稀釋液與市售兩款商業化植物性稀釋液用於精子冷凍解凍後,進行母牛人工授精(artificial insemination, AI)後懷孕率之影響。試驗一於稀釋液中添加不同濃度(6、7、8、9、10 %)之LDL,結果顯示稀釋液中添加8%LDL,公牛精子經冷凍解凍後有較高之精子活力(64.69 %)、向前精子活力(24.56 %)、存活率(56.99 %)與頭帽完整性(47.74%),且精子運動參數(VAP、VSL與ALH)均顯著高於其他處理組與稀釋液中添加20%蛋黃之對照組(P < 0.05)。試驗二在8% LDL稀釋液中添加不同濃度(0、0.5、1.0、1.5、2 mM)之GSH抗氧化物對臺灣荷蘭公牛冷凍精液品質之影響,結果顯示8% LDL冷凍稀釋液中添加0.5 mM GSH之處理組,有較高之向前精子活力(24.56 %)以及精子運動參數(P < 0.05),且能保留較高之精子存活率(65.81%)、頭帽完整性(57.94%)與DNA完整性(98.79%)。試驗三以試驗二之TCF-8 % LDL+0.5 mM GSH稀釋液(基質為蛋黃之萃取物)與兩款市售商業化植物性冷凍稀釋液進行比較,結果顯示Extender B(基質含植物性磷脂)有較佳之向前精子活力、VCL以及ALH(P < 0.05);而Extender A(基質含大豆萃取物)有較佳之LIN、STR與BCF(P < 0.05);LDL稀釋液在整體的精子運動參數則介於Extender A與Extender B之間。母牛體內(in vivo)配種試驗結果顯示,三款稀釋液間無顯著性差異(P > 0.05),但以LDL稀釋液處理組有較佳之懷孕率(62.96%),其次為Extender A(55.56%),最後為Extender B之(40.74 %)稀釋液。綜合本研究之試驗結果可知,荷蘭公牛精液冷凍保存時,可應用萃取自雞蛋蛋黃中之LDL取代傳統之全蛋黃作為稀釋液中主要之冷凍保護劑成分,且於稀釋液中添加8% LDL以及0.5 mM GSH可獲得最佳之荷蘭公牛精液冷凍解凍後之精液品質,與植物性稀釋液相比,亦能維持良好之母牛受胎率。
Sperm cryopreservation is one of the basic technologies in animal reproductive biology. Sperm cryopreservation often causes sperm freezing injury, which leads to low fertilization rate. It has been pointed out that the types and components of cryo-protectants might play a key role for improving the bull semen quality after frozen and thawed. Recently, the negative effects of egg yolk (EY) on the semen extender have been proposed, including promoting the growth of bacteria and microorganisms, disturbance of sperm metabolic conversion with particulate substances in EY, and interference of sperm biochemical analyses. In order to solve the problem caused by EY, some plant-based semen diluents have been developed. Anyhow, this type of extender is not widely applied due to the reduced fertility rate after frozen-thawed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on post-thawing Taiwan Holstein bull semen quality. Additionally, further comparisons with two commercial plant-based dilutions were conducted to assay bull semen quality in vitro and cow conception rate after artificial insemination. Experiment 1, the effect of different concentrations of LDL (6, 7, 8, 9, 10 %) in the freezing extender was evaluated. The results showed that the higher sperm viability (64.69%), progressive motility (24.56%), viability rate (56.99%) and acrosome integrity (47.74%) were found in the group of 8% LDL, and the sperm motility parameters (VAP, VSL and ALH) were also higher than the groups of 6%、10% LDL and control group (20% egg yolk; P <0.05 ). Experiment 2, the influence of different concentrations of GSH (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2 mM) to the extender containing 8% LDL on the quality of frozen semen in Taiwan Holstein bull was analzyed. The results indicated that the group of 0.5 mM GSH in 8% LDL frozen extender had higher sperm progressive motility (24.56%) and sperm motility parameters (P <0.05), and also kept higher sperm viability (65.81%), acrosome integrity (57.94%) and DNA integrity (98.79%) compared to other groups. Experiment 3, the comparisons of bull semen quality and fertility among the TCF-8% LDL+0.5 mM GSH diluent (egg yolk extract-based) and two commercial plant-based frozen extenders were conducted. The results demonstrated that Extender B (matrix containing plant phospholipids) had better sperm progressive motility, VCL and ALH (P <0.05); Extender A (matrix containing soy extract) had better LIN, STR and BCF (P <0.05), allthough the performance of the overall sperm movement parameters in the group of LDL extender were between the groups of Extender A and Extender B. In results of conception rate, the group of LDL extender showed the better conception rate (62.96%) compared with the group of Extender A (55.56%) and Extender B (40.74%), but there was no significant differences among three extenders (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the traditional role of the egg yolk using as a cryoprotectant in Holstein bull semen cryopreservation extender could be substituted by LDL. In addition, the cryopreservation extender containing 8% LDL and 0.5 mM GSH can achieve the best cryopreservation effect on the Holstein bull semen, and can maintain semen a better fertility of conception rate compared with the plant-based extenders.
摘要 ⅰ
Abstract ⅱ
目次 ⅳ
圖次目次 ⅴ
表次目次 ⅶ
文獻探討 1
一、前言 1
二、荷蘭牛在臺灣之選育歷史及繁殖現況 1
三、公牛之生殖生理 4
四、影響公牛精液品質之因子 19
五、影響公牛冷凍精液品質之因子 23
試驗一、不同濃度之低密度脂蛋白稀釋液對荷蘭公牛冷凍精液品質之影響 36
一、前言 36
二、材料方法 38
三、結果 48
四、討論 54
試驗二、LDL稀釋液中添加不同濃度之還原型穀胱甘肽抗氧化物對荷蘭公牛冷凍精液品質之影響 57
一、前言 57
二、材料方法 59
三、結果 62
四、討論 68
試驗三、比較荷蘭公牛於大豆基質、植物性磷脂及低密度脂蛋白冷凍稀釋對臺灣荷蘭母牛懷孕率之影響 71
一、前言 71
二、材料方法 72
三、結果 77
四、討論 86
結論 90
參考文獻 91
池雙慶。1977。臺灣北部乳牛泌乳曲線之研究。中畜會誌6:33-52。
宋永義。2006。新編乳牛學。華香園出版社。
李世昌、陳立人、許登造。1992。不同劑量激性腺荷爾蒙對乳牛超級排卵效果之比較。畜產研究25:59-64。
李素珍、陳茂墻。1985。臺灣北部牛乳成分調查。畜產研究18:199-207。
李善男、沈朋志、杜茂聖、許義明、蕭振文。2003。台灣荷蘭乳牛胚生產之最適條件。畜產研究36:121-127。
李善男、蕭振文、徐炘松、楊振榮、許登造。1993。乳牛胚之移置研究(Ⅱ)新鮮胚及冷凍胚之田間應用。畜產研究26:327-333。
李善男。2003。基因轉動物生殖細胞與胚之冷凍保存-動物基因轉殖技術與實驗。動物基因轉殖與疫苗發展技術教學資源中心。Page239-247。
季培元。1992。家畜解剖生理學。合記圖書出版社。下冊。
姜延年。1977。台灣本土山羊精液性狀之季節性變化。碩士論文。國立台灣大學。臺北市。
畜牧要覽。2007。草食家畜篇。行政院農業委員會資助中國畜牧學會編印發行。
康定傑、沈朋志、邢湘琳、陳裕信、曲鳳翔、陳立人。2012。冷凍稀釋液中添加低密度脂蛋白對阿爾拜因山羊精液冷凍解凍後精子活力之影響。畜產研究 45(2): 95-106。
張菊犁。2005。台灣優勢乳牛品種之利用。取自 : http://163.29.237.3/cow/20051031/2005cow_breed_3-2.htm
陳榮泰。2005。台灣乳業現況。取自 : http://163.29.237.3/cow/20051031/2005cow_breed_1-1.htm
黃志諺。2012。臺灣乳業簡介及彰化酪農發展史。行政院農業委員會資助發行。
楊德威、陳裕信、曲鳳翔、謝昭賢、蕭宗法。2016。外源激性腺素對荷蘭乳牛活體取卵之影響。畜產研究49:298-303。
楊德威、蕭宗法、黃金山、王治華、劉炳燦。2010。同期化處理對改善熱季荷蘭乳牛懷孕率之效果。畜產研究43:11-20。
楊德威、蕭宗法、謝昭賢、王治華、沈朋志、李善男、劉炳燦。2008。涼季採集之冷凍胚移置改善荷蘭乳牛熱季懷孕率。畜產研究41:183-192。
劉日雄。1970。荷蘭牛、娟姍牛與依拉瓦拉牛的耐熱性之比較觀察試驗。畜產研究3:5-13。
蕭振文、蔡麗卿、陳裕信、曲鳳翔、楊鎮榮、陳立人。2005。SRY/ZFX引子進行乳牛性別鑑定之聚合酶連鎖反應。畜產研究38:57-64。
戴謙、李善男。1997。台灣牛隻人工授精之研究推廣及未來展望。畜產研究30:125-134。
Aires, V. A., K. D. Hinsch, F. Mueller-Schloesser, K. Bogner, S. Mueller-Schloesser and E. Hinsch. 2003. In vitro and in vivo comparison of egg yolk-based and soybean lecithin-based extenders for cryopreservation of bovine semen. Theriogenology 60: 269-279.
Aires, V. A., K. D. Hinsch, F. Muller-schlosser, K. Bonger, S. Mullerschlosser and E. Aitken, R. J. 1984. Pathophysiology of human spermatozoa, Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gyn. 6: 128-135.
Aitken, R. J. and M. A. Baker. 2004. Oxidative stress and male reproductive biology, Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 16: 581–588.
Aitken, R. J., J. S. Clarkson, S. Fishel. 1989. Generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and human sperm function. Biol. Reprod. 41:183–197.
Aitken, R. J., T. B. Smith, M. S. Jobling, M. A. Baker, G. N. De Iuliis. 2014. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health. Androl. 16:31–38.
Akhoondi, M., H. Oldenhof, C. Stoll, H. Sieme, W. F. Wolkers. 2011. Membrane hydraulic permeability changes during cooling ofmammalian cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808: 642-648.
Akhter, S., M. S. Ansari, B. A. Rakha, N. Ullah, S. M. H. Andrabi and M. Khalid. 2011. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored Buffalo semen at 5℃ diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®) tris-citric eggyolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46: 45-49.
Akhter, S., M. S. Ansari, S. M. Andrabi, B. A. Rakha, N. Ullah and M. Khalid. 2012. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability andfertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 47: 815-819.
Ali Al Ahmad, M. Z. G. Chatagnon, L. Amirat-Briand, M. Moussa, D. Tainturie and M. Anton. 2008. Use of glutamine and low density lipoproteins isolated from egg yolk to improve buck semen freezing. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43: 429-436.
Almiron, I.,and H. Chemes.1988. Spermatogenic onset. II. FSH modulates mitotic Okeactivity of germ and Sertoli cells in immature rats. Int J Androl. 11: 235-246.
Almquist, J. O. and K. A. Barber. 1974. Puberal characteristics and early growth of Charolais bull in high nutrient allowance. J. Anim. Sci. 38: 831-834.
Alvarez, J. G. and B. T. Storey. 1989. Role of glutathione peroxidase in protecting mammalian spermatozoa from loss of motility caused by spontaneous lipid peroxidation. Gamete Res. 23: 77–90.
Alvarez, J.G. and B.T. Storey. 1993. Evidence for increased lipid peroxidation damage and loss of superoxide dismutase activity as a mode of sublethal cryodamage to human sperm during cryopreservation, J. Androl. 13: 232–241.
Amann, R. P. 1983. Endocrine changes associated with onset of spermatogenesis in Holstein bulls. J. Dairy Sci. 66: 2606-2622
Amann, R. P. and O. A. Walker. 1983. Changes in the pituitary-gonadal axis associated with puberty in Holstein bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 57:433-442.
Amann, R. P., M. E. Wise, J. D. Glass and T. M. Nett. 1986. Prepubertal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of Holstein bulls. Biol. Reprod 34:71-80.
Amanna, R. P., and D. Waberskib. 2014. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments. Theriogenology 81: 5-17.
Amirat, L., D. Tainturier, L. Jeanneau, C. Thorin, O. Gerard, J. L. Courtens and M. Anton. 2004. Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with optidyl, a commercial egg yolk extender. Theriogenology 61: 895-907.
Amirat, L., M. Anton, D. Tainturier, G. Chatagnon, I. Battut and J. L. Courtens. 2005. Modifications of bull spermatozoa induced by three extenders: Biociphos, low density lipoprotein and Triladyl, before, during and after freezing and thawing. Reproduction 129: 535-543.
Amirat-Briand, L., D. Benchairif, O. Vera-Munoz, H. Bel Hadj, S. Destrumelle, S. Desherces, E. Schmidt, M. Anton and D. Tainturier. 2009. Effect of glutamine on post-thaw motility of bull spermatozoa after association with LDL (low density lipoproteins) extender: Preliminary results. Theriogenology 71: 1209-1214.
Anchordoguy, T., J. F. Carpenter, S. H. Loomis and J. H. Crowe. 1988. Mechanisms of interaction of amino acids with phospholipids bilayers during freezing. Biochem Biophys Acta 946:299-306.
Ansari, M., B. Rakha, S. Akhter and M. Ashiq. 2016. OPTIXcell improves the postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo bull sperm. Theriogenology 85: 528-532.
Anton, M., V. Martinet, M. Dalgalarrondo, V. Beaumal, E. David-Briand and H. Rabesona. 2003. Chemical and structural characterization of low-density lipoproteins purified from hen egg yolk. Food Chem. 83: 175–183.
Anzar, M., L. He, M. M. Buhr, T. G. Kroetsch and K. P. Pauls. 2002. Sperm apoptosis in fresh and cryopreserved bull semen detected by flow cytometry and its relationship with fertility. Biol. Reprod. 66: 354-360.
Apgar, J. 1985. Zinc and Reproduction. Annual review of nutrition. 5:43-68.
Aumuller, G., M. Vesper, J. Seitz, M. Kemme and K.-H. Scheit. 1988. Binding of a major secretory protein from bull seminal vesicles to bovine spermatozoa. Cell Tissue Res. 252: 377-384.
Awad, M. M. 2011. Effect of some permeating cryoprotectants on CASA motility results in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa. Anim Reprod Sci. 123: 157-162.
Awad, M. M. and J. K. Graham. 2002. Effect of adding cholesterol to bovine spermatozoa on motility parameters and cell viability after cryopreservation. Cryobiology 45: 256-257.
Baarends, W. M., R. van der Laan and J. A. Groottegoed. 2001. DNA repair mechanisms and gametogenesis. Reproduction 121: 31-39.
Bailey, J. L., J. F. Bilodeau, N. Cormier. 2000. Semen cryopreservation in domestic animals: a damaging and capaciting phenomenon. J. Androl. 21: 1-7.
Ball, B. A. and A. Vo. 2001. Osmotic tolerance of equine spermatozoa and the effects of soluble cryoprotectants on equine sperm motility, viability and mitochondrial membrane potential. J. Androl. 22: 1061-1069.
Barth, A. D., L. F. C. Brito and J. P. Kastelic. 2008. The effect of nutrition on sexual development of bulls. Theriogenology 70: 485-494.
Batellier, F., M. Vidament, J. Fauquant, G. Duchamp, G. Arnaud , J. Yvon and M. Magistrini. 2001. Advances in cooled semen technology. Anim Reprod Sci. 68: 181-190.
Battelier, F., G. Duchamp, M. Vidament, G. Arnaud, E. Palmer and M. Magistrini. 1998. Delayed insemination is successful with a new extender for storing fresh semen at 15 °C under aerobic conditions. Theriogenology, 50: 29-236
Battelier, F., M. Vidament, J. Fauquant, G. Duchamp, G. Arnaud, J.M. Yvon, et al. 2001. Advances in cooled semen technology Anim Reprod Sci, 68: 181-190
Baust, J. G., D. Gao and J. M. Baust. 2009. Cryopreservation: an emerging paradigm change. Organogenesis 5:90-96. doi: 10.4161/org.5.3.10021
Bencharif, D., L. Amirat, M. Anton, E. Schmitt and S. Desherces. 2008. The advantages of LDL (low density lipoproteins) in the cryopreservation of canine semen. Theriogenology 70: 1478-1488.
Benson, J. D. , E. J. Woods , M. Walters , and J. K. Critser. 2012. The cryobiology of spermatozoa. Theriogenology 78: 1682-1699.
Beran, J., L. Stádník, J. Bezdíček, F. Louda, J. Čítek and J. Ducháček. 2012. Effect of sire and extender on sperm motility and share of live or dead sperm in bulls’ fresh ejaculate and in AI doses after thawing. Arch. Tierz 55: 207-218.
Bergeron, A., and P. Manjunath. 2006. New insights towards understanding the mechanisms of sperm protection by egg yolk and milk. Mol Reprod Dev. 73: 1338-1344.
Bergeron, A., M. H. Crete, Y. Brindle and P. Manjunath. 2004. Low-density lipoprotein fraction from Hen’s egg yolk decrease the binding of the major protein of bovine seminal plasma to sperm and prevents lipid efflux from the sperm membrane. Biol. Reprod. 70: 708-717.
Bhakat, M., T. Mohanty, V. Raina, A. Gupta, H. Khan, R. Mahapatra and M. Sarkar. 2011. Effect of age and season on semen quality parameters in Sahiwal bulls. Trop Anim. Health Prod 43: 1161-1168.
Bilodeau, J.F., S. Blanchette, C. Gagnon and M. A. Siarrd. 2001. Thiols prevent H2O2 mediated loss of sperm motility in cryopreserved bull semen. Theriogenology 56: 275-286.
Biol Reprod, 67:1250-1258
Blash, S., D. Melican and W. Gavin. 2000. Cryopreservation of epIdidymal sperm obtained at necropsy from goats. Theriogenology 54: 899-905.
Boitani, C. and R. Puglisi. 2008. Selenium, a key element in spermatogenesis and male fertility. Adv Exp Med Biol. 636: 65-73.
Bollwein, H., I. Fuchs and C. Koess. 2008. Interrelationship between plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43: 189-195.
Bousseau, S., J. Brillard, B. Marquant-Le Guienne, B. Guerin, A. Camus, M. Lechat. 1998. ''Comparison of bacteriological qualities of various egg yolk sources and the in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of bovine semen frozen in egg yolk or lecithin based diluents''. Theriogenology 50: 699-706.
Bredderman, P. J., and R. H. Foote. 1969. Volume of stressed bull spermatozoa and protoplasmic droplets and the relationship of cell size to motility and fertility. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 496-501.
Brito, L. F. C., A. E. D. F. Silva, L. H. Rodrigues, F. V. Vieira, L. A. G. Deragon and J. P. Kastelic. 2002. Effect of age and genetic group on characteristics of the scrotum, testes and testicular vascular cones, and on sperm production and semen quality in AI bulls in Brazil. Theriogenology 58: 1175-1186.
Brito, L. F. C., A.D. Barth, N. C. Rawlings, R. E. Wilde, D. H. Crews Jr, Y. R. Boisclair, R. A. Ehrhardt and J. P. Kastelic. 2007. Effect of feed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls. Reproduction 134: 171-181.
Brown, B. W. 1994. A review of nutritional influences on reproduction in boars, bulls and rams. Reproduction, nutrition, development 34:89-114.
Bucak, M. N., P. B. Tuncer, S. Sariozkan, N. Basimar, M. Taipınar, K. Coyan, A. Bilgili, P. P. Akalın, S. Buyukleblebici, S. Aydos, S. Ilgaz, A. Sunguroglu, D. Oztuna. 2007. Effects of antioxidants on post-thawed bovine sperm and oxidative stress parameters: antioxidants protect DNA integrity against cryodamage. Cryobiology 61: 248-253.
Byrne, G.P., P. Lonergan, M. Wade, P. Duffy, A. Donovan, J. P. Hanrahan and M. P. Boland. 2000. Effect of freezing rate of ram spermatozoa on subsequent fertility in vivo and in vitro. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 62: 265-275.
Calvete, J. J., M. Raida, L. Sanz, F. Wempe and K. H. Scheit, A. Romero and E. Toepfer-Petersen. 1994. Localization and structural characterization of an oligosaccharide O-linked to bovine PDC-109: quantitation of the glycoprotein in seminal plasma and on the surface of ejaculated and capacitated sperm. FEBS Lett. 350: 203-206.
Carver-Ward, J., I. Moran-Verbeek and J. M. Hollanders. 1997. Comparative flow cytometric analysis of the human sperm acrosome reaction using CD46 antibody and lectins. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 14: 111-119.
Cavalcanti, M. C. O., C. S. Moura, M. M. P. Guerra, S. V. Silva. 2002. Cryoprotectoraction of the glycerol and ethylene glycol in the freezing of the dog semen. Rev. Bras. Reprod. Anim. 26: 174-176.
Celeghini, E. C. C., R. P. de Arruda, A. F. C. de Andrade, J. Nascimento, C. F. Raphael and P. H. M. Rodrigues. 2008. Effects that bovine sperm cryopreservation using two different extenders has on sperm membranes and chromatin. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 104: 119-131.
Chaudhari, D., A. Dhami, K. Hadiya and J. Patel. 2015. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (− 196 ℃) of buffalo semen. Vet. World 8: 239-244.
Chemineau P., Y. Cogie, P. Guerin, a nd J. C. Vallet. 1991. Training Manual on Artificial Insemination in Sheep and Goats. FAO Animal production and Health paper 83. Rome.
Chew, B. P. 1995. Antioxidant Vitamins Affect Food Animal Immunity and Health. J Nutr. 125: 1804S-1808S.
Clarke, G. N., D. Y. Liu and H. W. G. Baker. 2003. Improved spermcryopreservation using cold cryoprotectant. Reprod. Fert. Dev. 15: 377-381.
Contri, A., A. Gloria, D. Robbe, C. Valorz, L. Wegher, and A. Carluccio. 2013. Kinematic study on the effect of pH on bull sperm function. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 136: 252-259.
Cook,W. H. and W. G. Martin. 1969. Egg lipoproteins. In: Tria E, Scanu AM, editors. Structural and functional aspects of lipoproteins in living systems. New York: Academic Press 579-615.
Cooper, D. R., O. R. Kling and M. P. Carpenter. 1987. Effect of vitamin E deficiency on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone during testicular maturation and degeneration. Endocrinology 120:83-90.
Cooper, T. G. Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test. 2010. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. 5th ed. World Health Organization.
Crespilho, A., M. Sá Filho, J. Dell''Aqua, M. Nichi, G. Monteiro, B. Avanzi, A. Martins and F.O. Papa. 2012. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of bovine semen frozen in egg yolk or new lecithin based extenders. Liv. Sci. 149: 1-6.
Crespilho, A., M. Sá Filho, J. Dell''Aqua, M. Nichi, G. Monteiro, B. Avanzi, A. Martins and F. O. Papa. 2012. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of bovine semen frozen in egg yolk or new lecithin based extenders. Livest. Sci. 149: 1-6.
Cupps, P. C. 1991. Reproduction in domestic animals. 4th. Edition. Academic Press, Inc. NY. Pp 221-249.
De Leeuw, F. E., A. M. De Leeuw, J.H.G. den Daas, B. Colenbrander, and A. J. Verkleij. 1993. Effects of various cryoprotective agents and membrane-stabilizing compounds on bull sperm membrane integrity after cooling and freezing. Cryobiology 30: 32–44.
De Ménorval, M. A., L. M. Mir, M. L. Fernández, R. Reigada. 2012. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes: a comparative study of experiments in silico and with cells. PLoS One 7 p. e41733.
Deka, B. C. and A. R. Rao. 1987. Effect of extenders and thawing methods on post thawing preservation of goat semen. Indian Vet. J. 64: 591-594.
Demianowicz, W. and J. Strzezek. 1996. The effect of lipoprotein fraction of egg yolk on some of the biological properties of boar spermatozoa during storage of the semen in liquid state. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 31: 279-280.
Desnoyers, L. and P. Manjunath. 1992. Major proteins of bovine seminal plasma exhibit novel interactions with phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 267:10149–10155.
Devireddy, R. V., D. J. Swanlund, T. Olin, W. Vincente, M. H. T. Troedsson, J. C. Bischof and K. P. Roberts. 2002. Cryopreservation of equine sperm:optimal cooling rates in the presence and absence of cryoprotectiveagents determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Biol. Reprod. 66: 222-231.
Dhami, A. J. and K.L. Shani. 1994. Evaluation of different cooling rates, equilibration periods and diluents for effects on deep-freezing, enzyme leakage and fertility of taurine bull spermatozoa. Theriogenology 40: 1269-1280.
Dhami, A. J., K. L. Sahni, G. Mohan and V. R. Jani. 1996. Effects of different variables on the freezability post thaw longevity and fertility of buffalo spermatozoa in the tr opics. Theriogenology 46: 109-120.
Dhami, A. J., K. L. Shani and G. Mohan. 1995. Role of prefreeze cooling/holding times, dilutors and thaw rates in improving freezability and post thaw survival of bovine spermatozoa. Indian J Anim Reprod. 16: 117-120.
Dhami. A. J., V. R. Jani, G. Mohan and K. L. Sahni. 1994. Effect of extenders and additives on freezability, post thaw thermoresistence and fertility of frozen Murrah buffalo semen under tropical climate. Buffalo J. 10: 35-45.
Dong, Q. X., S. E. Rodenburg, D. Hill and C. A. VandeVoort. 2011. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Asian J. andrology. 13: 459-464.
El-Harairy, M. A., N. Eid Laila, A. E. B. Zeidan, A. M. Abd El-Salaam and M. A. M. El-Kishk. 2010 Quality and fertility of the frozen-thawed bull semen as affected by the different cryoprotectants and glutathione levels. J. Am. Sci. 7 : 791-801.
Elmoazzen, H. Y., J. A. Elliott and L. E. McGann. 2009. Osmotic transportacross cell membranes in nondilute solutions: a new nondilutesolute transport equation. Biophys. J. 96: 2559-2571.
Esch, F. S., N. C. Ling, P. Bohlen, S .Y. Ying and R. Guillemin. 1983. Primary structure of PDC-109, amajor protein constituent of bovine seminal plasma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113: 861-867.
Estrada, E., J. E. Rodríguez-Gil, M. M. Rivera Del Álamo, A. Peña and M. Yeste. 2015. Effects of reduced glutathione on acrosin activity in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD15118.
Evans, A. C. O., F. J. Davies, L. F. Nasser, P. Bowman and N. C. Rawlings. 1995. Differences in early patterns of gonadotropin secretion between early and late maturing bulls, and changes in semen characteristics at puberty. Theriogenology 43: 569-578
Evans, G. and W. M. C. Maxwell. 1987. Salamon''s Artificial Insemination of Sheep and Goats. Butterworths. Sydney.
Evans, R., D. Bauer, S. Vaghefi and C Flegal. 1969. Influence of feeding cottonseed oil to laying hens on the low density lipoproteins of their eggs. J. Nutr. 99: 485-490.
Everett, R. W. and B. Bean. 1982. Environmental influences on semen output. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 1303-1310.
Fiaz, M., R. H. Usmani, M. Abdullah and T. Ahmad. 2010. Evaluation of semen quality of Holstein Friesian and Jersey bulls maintained under subtropical environment. Pak. Vet. J. 30: 75-78.
Fields, M. J., W. C. Burns and A. C. Warnick. 1979. Age, season and breed effects on testicular volume and semen traits in young beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 1299-1304.
Fiser, P. S. and R. W. Fairfull. 1990. Combined effect of glycerol concentration and cooling velocity on motility and acrosomal integrity of boar spermatozoa frozen in 0.5 ml straws. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 25: 123-129.
Foote, R. H., C. C. Brockett, and M. T. Kaproth. 2002. Motility and fertility of bull sperm in whole milk extender containing antioxidants. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 71: 13-23.
Forouzanfar, M., M. Sharafi, S. Hosseini, S. Ostadhosseini, M. Hajian, L. Hosseini, P. Abedi, N. Nili, H. Rahmani and M. Nasr-Esfahani. 2010. In vitro comparison of egg yolk–based and soybean lecithin–based extenders for cryopreservation of ram semen. Theriogenology 73: 480-487.
Gadea, J., E. Selles, M. A. Marco, P. Coy, C. Matas, R. Romar, S. Ruiz. 2004. Decrease in glutathione content in boar sperm after cryopreservation. Effect of the addition of reduced glutathione to the freezing and thawing extenders. Theriogenology 62: 690-701.
Gadea, J., G. David, M. S. Carmen and R. Romar. 2005. Supplementation of the thawing media with reduced glutathione improves function and the in vitro fertilizing ability of boar spermatozoa after cryopreservation. J. Androl. 26: 749-775.
Ganguly, J., M. R. Rao, S. K. Murthy and K. Sarada. 1980. Systemic mode of action of vitamin A. Vitamins and hormones 38:1.
Gangwar, C., A. Saxena, A. Patel, S. P. Singh, S. Yadav, R. Kumar and V. Singh. 2018. Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation on cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries in Murrah bull semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 192: 171-178.
Gao, D. Y., J. Liu, C. Liu, L. E. McGann, P. F. Watson, F. W. Kleinhans, P. Mazur, E. S. Critser, and J. K. Critser. 1995. Prevention of osmotic injury to human spermatozoa during addition and removal of glycerol. Human Reprod. 10: 1109-1122.
Garner, D. 1991. Artificial insemination. P.T. Cupps (Ed.), Reproduction in domestic animals, Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 251-278.
Garner, D., L. Johnson, S. Yue, Roth, and R. Haugland. 1994. Dual DNA staining assessment of bovine sperm viability using SYBR‐14 and propidium iodide. Int. J. Androl. 15: 620-629.
Garton, M. J. and D. M. Reid 1993 . Bone mineral density of the hip and of the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of the spine in men with rheumatoid arthritis. Effects of low dose corticosterorids. Arthritis Rheum. 36: 222-228.
Gil, J., M. Rodriguez-Irazoqui, N. Lundeheim and L. Söderquist. 2003. Fertility of ram semen frozen in Bioexcell® and used for cervical artificial insemination. Theriogenology 59: 1157-1170.
Godfrey, R. W., D. D. Lunstra, T. G. Jenkins, J. G. Berardinelli, M. J. Guthrie, D. A. Neuendorff, C. R. Long and R. D. Randel. 1990. Effect of season and location on semen quality and serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in Brahman and Hereford bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 734-749.
Graham, J. and R. Foote. 1987. Effect of several lipids, fatty acyl chainlength, and degree of unsaturation on the motility of bull spermatozoa after cold shock and freezing. Cryobiology 24: 42-52.
Graham, L. A., J. D. Phillips and B. L. Trumpower. 1992. Deletion of subunit 9 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome bc1 complex specifically impairs electron transfer at the ubiquinol oxidase site (center P) in the bc1 complex. FEBS Lett 313: 251-254.
Gurtovenko, A. A. and J. Anwar. 2007. Modulating the structure and properties of cell membranes: the molecular mechanism of action of dimethyl sulfoxide. J Phy Chem Biochem 111: 10453-10460.
Guthrie, H.D., J. Liu, J. K. Critser. 2002. Osmotic tolerance limits and effects of cryoprotectants on motility of bovine spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 67 :1811-6.
Gwathmey, T. M., G. G. Ignotz and S. S. Suarez. 2003. PDC-109 (BSP-A1/-A2) promotes bull sperm binding to oviductal epithelium in vitro and may be involved in forming the oviductal sperm reservoir. Biol. Reprod. 69: 809-815.
Hafez, E. S. E. and B. Hafez. 2000. Anatomy of Male Reproduction. Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. USA. pp. 3-12.
Harstine, B. R., M. Maquivar, L. A. Helser, M. D. Utt, C. Premanandan, J. M. DeJarnette and M. L. Day. 2015. Effects of dietary energy on sexual maturation and sperm production in Holstein bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 93: 2759-2766.
Henry, M., P. P. N. Snoeck, A. C. P. Cottorello. 2002. Post-thaw spermatozoa plasma integrity and motility of stallion semen frozen with different cryoprotectants. Theriogenology 58: 245-248.
Hidiroglou, M. and J.E. Knipfel. 1984. Zinc in Mammalian Sperm: A Review. J. Dairy Sci. 67: 1147-1156.
Hinsch, E., K. D. Hinsch, J. Boehm, W. B. Schill and F. Mueller‐Schloesser. 1997. Functional Parameters and Fertilization Success of Bovine Semen Cryopreserved in Egg‐yolk Free and Egg‐yolk Containing Extenders. Reprod Dom Anim 32: 143-149.
Hinsch. 2003. In vitro and in vivo comparision of egg yolk based and soya bean based extenders for cryopreservation of bovine semen. Theriogenology 60: 269-279.
Hoffmann, N., H. Oldenhof, C. Morandini, K. Rohn and H. Sieme. 2011. Optimal concentrations of cryoprotective agents for semen fromstallions that are classified ‘good’ or ‘poor’ for freezing. Anim.Reprod. Sci. 125: 112-118.
Hong, W., L. Ni, D. Tian, Y. Lu, C. Deng. 2008. Effect of LDL on cryopreservation of sheep spermatozoa. Anim Husbandry Feed Sci 4: 29-31
Hu, J. H., Q. W. Li, G. Li, X. Y. Chen, H. Yang, S. S. Zhand and L. Q. Wang. 2006. The cryoprotective effect on frozen-thawed boar semen of egg yolk low density lipoproteins. Asian-Aust J. Anim. Sci. 19: 486-494.
Hu, J. H., Q. W. Li, L. S. Zan, Z. L. Jiang, J. H. An, L.Q. Wang and Y. H. Jia. 2010. The cryoprotective effect of low-density lipoproteins in extender on bull spermatozoa following freezing-thawing. Anim. Repro. Sci. 117:11-17
Hu, J. H., Q. W. Li, Z. L. Jiang and W. Y. Li. 2008. Effects of different extenders on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing–thawing. Cryobiology 57: 257–262.
Hu, J. H., Z. L. Jiang, R. K. Lv, Q. W. Li, S. S. Zhang, L. S. Zan, Y. K. Li and X. Li. 2011. The advantages of low density lipoproteins in the cryopreservation of bull semen. Cryobiology 62: 83-87
Hu, S., Y. Xie, P. Ramachandran, R. Loo, Y. Li and J. A. Loo. 2005. Large-scale identification of proteins in human salivary proteome by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Proteomics 5: 1714-1728.
Hu, T. X., H. B. Zhu, W. J. Sun, H. S. Hao, X. M. Zhao, W. H. Du and Z. L. Wan. 2016. Sperm pretreatment with glutathione improves IVF embryos development through increasing the viability and antioxidative capacity of sex-sorted and unsorted bull semen. J. Integ. Agric. 15: 2326-2335.
Iqbal, N. and A.G. Hunter. 1991. Comparison of bovine sperm capacitations systems. J Dairy Sci. 74 (Suppl):228.
Jago, J., N. Cox, J. Bass, and L. Matthews.1997. The effect of prepubertal immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the development of sexual and social behavior of bulls. Journal of animal science75, 2609-2619.
Jiménez-Severiano, H., J. Quintal-Franco, V. Vega-Murillo, E. Zanella, M. E. Wehrman, B. R. Lindsey, E. J. Melvin and J. E. Kinder. 2003. Season of the year influences testosterone secretion in bulls administered luteinizing honrmone. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 1023-1029.
Johnson, M. H. and B. J. Everitt. 1995. Essential reproduction. 4th Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. USA. 45-108pp.
Kadirvel, G., S. Periasamy and S. Kumar. 2012. Effect of cryopreservation on apoptotic like events and its relationship with cryocapacitation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 47: 143-150.
Kampschmidt, R. F., D. T. Mayer and H. A Herman. 1953. Lipid and lipoprotein constituents of egg yolk in the resistance and storage of bull spermatozoa. J Dairy Sci. 36: 733-742.
Kampschmidt, R. F., D. T. Mayer and H. A Herman. 1953. Lipid and lipoprotein constituents of egg yolk in the resistance and storage of bull spermatozoa. J Dairy Sci. 36: 733-742.
Karabinus, D. S., D. P. Evenson, L. K. Jost, R. K. Baer and M. T. Kaproth. 1990. Comparison of semen quality in young and mature Holstein bulls measured by light microscopy and flow cytometry. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 2364-2371.
Kashuba, C. M., J. D. Benson, J. K. Critser. 2014. Rationally optimizedcryopreservation of multiple mouse embryonic stem cell lines:I-Comparative fundamental cryobiology of multiple mouseembryonic stem cell lines and the implications for embryonic stemcell cryopreservation protocols. Cryobiology 68: 166-175.
Katkov, I. I., N. Katkova, J. K. Crister and P. Mazur. 1998. Mouse spermatozoa in high concentrations of glycerol: chemical toxicity v.s. osmotic shock at normal and reduced oxygen concentrations. Cryobiology, 37:325-338.
Kellokumpo, S. and H. Rajaniemi. 1981. Effect of zinc on the uptake of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in rat testis and testosterone response in vivo. Biol. Reprod. 24:298-305.
Kenagy, G. J. and Trombulack, S. C. 1986. J. Mammal. 67: 1-22.
Kirkwood, B. R., D. A. Ross, P. Arthur, S. S. Morris, N. Dollimore, F. N. Binka, R. P. Shier, J. O. Gyapong, H. A. Addy and P. G. Smith. 1996. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63:773-781.
Koivisto, M. B., M. T. A. Costa, S. H. V. Perri and W. R. R. Vicente. 2009. The effect of season on semen characteristics and freezability in Bos indicus and Bos taurus bulls in the southeastern region of Brazil. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 44: 587-592.
Kojima, E. and R. Nakamura. 1985. Heat gelling properties of hen’s egg yolk low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the presence if other protein. J. Food Sci. 50: 63-66.
Koskinen, E., M. Junnila, T. Katila and H. Soini. 1989. A preliminary study on the use of betaine as a cryoprotective agent in deep-freezing of stallion semen. J Vet Med, 39:110-114.
Krause, D.S., N. D.Theise, M. I. Collector, O. Henegariu, S. Hwang, R. Gardner, S. Neutzel and S. J. Sharkis. 2001. Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell. Cell 105: 369-377.
Kumar, P., M. Saini, D. Kumar, A. Balhara, S. Yadav, P. Singh and P. Yadav. 2015. Liposome-based semen extender is suitable alternative to egg yolk-based extender for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen. Anim. Rreprod. Sci. 159: 38-45.
Kumi-Diaka, J., V. Nagaratnam and J. Rwuaan. 1981. Seasonal and age-related changes in semen quality and testicular morphology of bulls in a tropical environment. Vet. Record 108: 13-15.
Lamia, A., T. Daniel, J. Laë titia, T. Chantal, G. Olivier, L.C. Jean and A. Marc. 2004. Bull semen in vitro fertility after cryopreservation using egg yolk LDL: a comparison with optidyl1, a commercial egg yolk extender. Theriogenology 61: 895-907.
Larsen, L., T. Scheike, T. K. Jensen, J. P. Bonde, E. Ernst, N. H. Hjollund, A. Giwercman. 2000. Computer assisted semen analysis parameters as predictor for fertility of men from the general population. Human Reprod. 15: 1562-1567.
Layek, S. S., T. K. Mohanty, A. Kumaresan and J. E. Parks. 2016. Cryopreservation of bull semen: Evolution from egg yolk based to soybean based extenders. Anim Reprod Sci 172: 1-9.
Leboeuf, B., B. Restall, and S. Salamon. 2000. Production and storage of goat semen for artificial insemination. Animal reproduction science 62: 113-141.
Lincoln, G. A., I. J. Clarke and T. Sweeney. 1996. ‘Hamster‐like’ Cycles in Testicular Size in the Absence of Gonadotrophin Secretion in HPD Rams Exposed to Long‐term Changes in Photoperiod and Treatment with Melatonin. J Neuroendocrinol. 8: 855-866.
Liu, C. H., H. B. Dong, D. L. Ma, Y. W. Li, D. Han, M. J. Luo, Z. L. Chang, and J. H. Tan. 2016. Effects of pH during liquid storage of goat semen on sperm viability and fertilizing potential. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 164: 47-56.
Liu, D. Y., G. N. Clarke and H. W. G. Baker 1991 Relationship between sperm motility assessed with th e Hamilton Thorn Motility Analyzer and fertilization rates in vitro. J. Androi. 12: 231-239.
Liu, Y, Wang D. K., Chen L. M. 2012. The physiology of bicarbonate transporters in mammalian reproduction. Biol. Reprod. 86: 99.
Liu, Z. and R. H. Foote. 1998. Bull Sperm Motility and Membrane Integrity in Media Varying in Osmolality. J Dairy Sci 81: 1868-1873.
Louis, G.F., A.J. Lewis, W.C. Weldon, P.M. Ermer, P.S. Miller, R.J. Kittok and W.W. Stroup. 1994. The effect of energy and protein intakes on boar libido, semen characteristics, and plasma hormone concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 2051-2060.
Lovelock, J. E. and M. W. Bishop. 1959. Prevention of freezing damage to living cells by dimethyl sulphoxide. Nature. 183: 1394-1395.
Majić Balić, I., S. Milinković-Tur, M. Samardžija and S. Vince. 2012. Effect of age and environmental factors on semen quality, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative parameters in simmental bulls. Theriogenology 78: 423-431.
Malama, E., Y. Zeron, F. Janett, M. Siuda, Z. Roth, and H. Bollwein. 2017. Use of computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry to detect seasonal variations of bovine semen quality. Theriogenoligy 87: 79-90.
Manjunath P, Nauc V, Bergeron A, Ménard M.
Manjunath, P. 2012. New insights into the understanding of the mechanism of sperm protection by extender components. Anim. Reprod. 9: 809-815.
Manjunath, P., V. Nauc, A. Bergeron and M. Ménard. 2002. Major proteins of bovine seminal plasma bind to the low-density lipoprotein fraction of hen''s egg yolk. Biol Reprod 67: 1250-1258.
Mann, T. 1964. Biochemicstry of semen and of the male reproductive tract. Methuen, London.
Mann, T. and A. Walton. 1953. The effect of under-feeding on the genital functions of a bull. J. Agric. Sci. 43: 343-347.
Mann, T., and C. Lutwak-Mann. 1981. Biochemistry of Spermatozoa: Chemical and Functional Correlations in Ejaculated Semen, Andrological Aspect, In: Male Reproductive Function and Semen. Springer, 195-268.
Mantovani, R., A. Rota, M. E. Falomo, L. Bailoni and L. Vincenti. 2002. Comparison between glycerol and ethylene glycol for the cryopreservation of equine spermatozoa: sperm quality assessment with standard analyses and with the hypoosmotic swelling test. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 42 :217-226.
Martin, G., O. Sabido, N. Cognan, B. Sion, G. Grizad and P. Durand. 2007. Kinetics of occurrence of some features of apoptosis during the cryopreservation process of bovine spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 22: 380–388.
Martinez-Pastor, F., F. Martinez, M. Alvarez, A. Maroto-Morales and O. Garcia-Alvarez. 2009. Cryopreservation of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) spermatozoa obtained by electroejaculation. Theriogenology 71: 628-38.
Mathevon, M., M. M. Buhr and J.C.M. Dekkers. 1998. Environmental, management, and genetic factors affecting semen production in Holstein bulls. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 3321-3330.
Maxwell, W. M. C. and P. F. Watson. 1996. Recent progress in the preservation of ram semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 42: 55-65.
Maynard, L. A., J. K. Loosli, H. F. Hintz and R. G. Warner. 1979. Reproduction. Anim. Nutr. 16: 472. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Mazur, P. 1963. Kinetics of water loss from cells at subzerotemperatures and the likelihood of intracellular freezing. J. Gen. Physiol. 47: 347–369.
Mazur, P. 1970. Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems. Science 168: 939-949.
Mazur, P. 1984. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. Am. J. Physiol. 247: C125-C142.
Mazur, P. 2004. Principles of cryobiology. In: Fuller, B. J., Lane, N. L.,Benson, E. E. (Eds.), Life in the Frozen State. CRC Press LLC, BocaRaton, FL, pp 3–65.
Mazur, P., S. P. Leibo, E. H. Chu. 1972. A two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury. Evidence from Chinese hamster tissue-culture cells. Exp. Cell. Res. 71: 345-355.
McCann, S., H. Mizunuma, W. Samson, andM.Lumpkin.1983. Differential hypothalamic control of FSH secretion: a review. Psychoneuroendocrinology 8: 299-308.
McDowell, L. R. 1997. Minerals for grazing ruminants in tropical regions. United States.
McGann, L. E. 1979. Optimal temperature ranges for control of cooling rate. Cryobiology 16: 211-216.
Meacham, T. N., T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges Jr and D. D. Hargrove. 1963. Influence of low protein rations on growth and semen characteristics of young beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 22: 115-120.
Medeiros, C., F. Forell , A. Oliveira and J. Rodrigues. 2002. Current status of sperm cryopreservation: why isn''t it better? Theriogenology 57: 327-344.
Meena, G., V. Raina, A. Gupta, T. Mohanty and R. Bishist. 2010. Comparative performance of biociphos and egg yolk based extenders for buffalo semen cryopreservation. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 80: 414-417.
Menegassi, S., J. Barcellos, E. Dias, C. Koetz Jr, G. Pereira, V. Peripolli, C. McManus, M. Canozzi and F. Lopes. 2015. Scrotal infrared digital thermography as a predictor of seasonal effects on sperm traits in Braford bulls. Int J Biometeorol 59: 357-364.
Meryman, H. T. 2007. Cryopreservation of living cells: principles and practice. Transfusion 47: 935-945
Meyers, S. A. 2005. Spermatozoal response to osmotic stress. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 89 :57-64.
Molinia, F. C., G. Evans, W. M. C. Maxwell. 1994. Incorporating of penetrating cryoprotectants in diluents for pellet-freezing ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology 42: 849-858.
Moreno, D., D. Bencharif, L. Amirat-Briand, A. Neira, S. Destrumelle and D. Tainturier. 2013. Preliminary results: the advantages of low-density lipoproteins for the cryopreservation of equine semen. Equine Vet. Sci. 33: 1068-1075.
Morrow, R. E., Elmore, R. G., Brooks, A. L., Luebker, J. P. and Breuer, D. J. 1981. Growth and reproductive development of beef bulls tested on two levels of energy. J. Anim. Sci. 53:188.
Moussa, M., V. Martinet, A. Trimeche, D. Tainturier and M. Anton. 2002. Low density lipoproteins extended from hen egg yolk by an easy method: cryoprotective effect on frozen-thawed bull semen. Theriogenology 57: 1695-1706.
Muiño, R., M. Fernández and A. I. Peña. 2007. Post-thaw survival and longevity of bull spermatozoa frozen with an egg yolk-based or two egg yolk-free extenders after an equilibration period of 18h. Reprod Dom Anim. 42: 305-311.
Muldrew, K., J. Acker, J. Elliott, and L. McGann. 2004. The water to ice transition: implications for living cells. Life in the frozen state. 67-108.
Müller, P., K. R. Erlemann, K. Muller and J. J. Calvete, E. Toepfer-Petersen, K. Marienfeld and A. 1998. Hermann Biophysical characterization of the bovine seminal plasmaprotein PDC-109 with phospholipid vesicles. Eur Biophys J. 27: 33-41.
Murphy, C., S. A. Holden, E. M. Murphy, A. R. Cromie, P. Lonergan and S. Fair. 2016. The impact of storage temperature and sperm number on the fertility of liquidstored bull semen. Reprod. Fert. Dev. 28: 1349-1359.
Murphy, E. M., C. Murphy, C. O''Meara, G. Dunne, B. Eivers, P. Lonergan, S. Fair. 2017. A comparison of semen diluents on the in vitro and in vivo fertility of liquid bull semen. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 1541-1554.
Murphya, E. M., C. O’Meara, B. Eivers, P. Lonergan and S. Fair. 2018. Comparison of plant- and egg yolk-based semen diluents on in vitro sperm kinematics and in vivo fertility of frozen-thawed bull semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 191: 70-75.
Nadeem, S., V. Singh, H. P. Yadav, M. Verma, D. S. Chauhan, A. Saxena, S. Yadav and D. K. Swain. 2017. Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation in semen extender on tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in frozen thawed Hariana bull spermatozoa Ani. Reprod. Sci. 182: 111-122.
Naresh, Sai and S. K. Atreja. 2015. The protein tyrosine phosphorylation during in vitrocapacitation and cryopreservation of mammalian spermatozoa. Cryobiology 70: 211–216.
Nauc, V. and Manjunath P. 2000. Radioimmunoassays for bull seminal plasma proteins (BSP-A1/-A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kilodaltons), and their quantification in seminal plasma and sperm. Biol. Reprod. 63: 1058-1066.
Nichi, M., P. E. J. Bols, R. M. Züge, R. C. Barnabe, V. H. Barnabe, I. G. F. Goovaerts and C. N. M. Cortada. 2006. Seasonal variation in semen quality in Bos indicus and Bos taurus bulls raised under tropical conditions. Theriogenology 66: 822-828.
Nishigaki, T., O. Jose, A. L. Gonzalez-Cota, F. Romero, C. L. Trevino, and A. Darson. 2014. Intracellular pH in sperm physiology. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 450: 1149-1158.
Nordin, W., M. Hilmi and T. A. Bongso. 1990. Semen Characteristics related to Age in Growing Swamp Buffalo (bubalus bubalis). Buffalo J. 6: 161-166.
Oke, M., J. K. Jacob and G. Paliyath. 2010. Effect of soy lecithin in enhancing fruit juice/sauce quality. Food Res. Int. 43: 232-240.
Oldenhof, H., K. Friedel, H. Sieme, B. Glasmacher, W. F .Wolkers. 2010. Membrane permeability parameters for freezing of stallion sperm asdetermined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cryobiology 61: 115-122.
on the quality of cryopreserved dog semen, Anim. Reprod. Sci. 115: 323-327.
Pace, M. M. and E. F. Graham. 1974. Components in egg yolk which protect bovine spermatozoa during freezing. J. Anim Sci. 39: 1144-1149.
Papa, F., G. Felıcio, C. Melo, B. Vita, B. Avanzi and J. Aqua. 2010. Effect of substituting soybean lecithin for egg yolk in an extender used for the cryopreservation of stallion semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 121: 71-72.
Pena, F., A. Johannisson, M. Wallgren and H. R. Martinez. 2003. Antioxidant supplementation in vitro improves boar sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential after cryopreservation of different fractions of the ejaculate. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 78: 85-98.
Phillips, P. H. and H. A. Lardy. 1940. A yolk-buffer pabulum for the preservation of bull semen. J. Dairy Sci. 23: 399-404.
Pintado, B., J. De La Fuente, and E. Roldan. 2000. Permeability of boar and bull spermatozoa to the nucleic acid stains propidium iodide or Hoechst 33258, or to eosin: accuracy in the assessment of cell viability. J. Reprod. Fertil. 118: 145-152.
Pitts, W. J., W. J. Miller, O. T. Fosgate, J. D. Morton and C. M. Clifton. 1966. Effect of zinc deficiency and restricted feeding from two to five months of age on reproduction in Holstein bulls. J. Dairy Sci. 49: 995-1000.
Polge, C., A. U. Smith and A. S. Parkes. 1949. Revival of spermatozoa aftervitrification and dehydration at law temperatures. Nature 164: 666-676.
Pugliesi, G., G. R. de Carvalho, D. M. Rates, P. G. Ker, M. P. da Matta, R. R. deOliveira and J. M. D. Filho. 2012. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders. R. Bras. Zootecnia 41: 2411-2417.
Purdy, P. H., 2006. A review on goat sperm cryopreservation. Small. Rumi. Res. 63:215-225.
Quinn, P. J. and P. Y. W. Chow. 1980. Evidence that phospholipids protects spermatozoa from cold shock at a plasma membrane site. J. Reprod. Fertil. 60: 403-407.
Rawlings, N., A. Evans, R. Chandolia and E. Bagu. 2008. Sexual Maturation in the Bull. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 43: 295-301.
Rekwot, P. I., E. O. Oyedipe, O. O. Akerejola and J. Kumi-Diaka. 1988. The effect of protein intake on body weight, scrotal circumference and semen production of Bunaji bulls and their Friesian crosses in Nigeria. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 16: 1-9.
Rota, A., C. Milani, G. Cabianca and M. Martini. 2006. Comparison between glycerol and ethylene glycol for dog semen cryopreservation. Theriogenology 65: 1848-1858.
Said, T. M., A. Gaglani and A. Agarwal. 2010. Implication of apoptosis in sperm cryoinjury. Reprod Biomed Online. 21:456–62. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2010.05.011.
Sairam, M.R., andH.Krishnamurthy.2001. The role of follicle-stimulating hormone in spermatogenesis: lessons from knockout animal models. Archives of medical research 32: 601-608.
Sanchez-Luengo, S., G. Aumuller, M. Albrecht, P. C. Sen, K. Rohm and B. Wilhelm. 2004. Interaction of PDC-109, the major secretory protein from bull seminal vesicles, with bovine sperm membrane Ca (2+) - ATPase. J. Androl. 25: 234-244.
Sanchez-Partida, L. G., W. M. C. Maxwell, L. G. Paleg and B. P. Setchell. 1992. Proline and glycine betaïne in cryoprotective diluents for ram spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil 4: 113-118.
Sansone, G., M. J. F. Nastri and A. Fabbrocini. 2000. Storage of buffalo Bubalu s bubalis ) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 62: 55-76.
Sariozkan, S., M. N. Bucak, P. B. Tuncer, P. B. Ulutas and A. Bilgean. 2009. The influence of cystein and taurine on microscopic-oxidative stress parameter and fertilizing ability of bull semen following cryopreservation. Cryobiology 58: 134-138.
Scott, M. L. 1978. Vitamin E. Page 133 in Handbook of lipid research. Vol. 2. The fat-soluble vitamins. H. F. DeLuca, ed. Plenum Press, New York.
Severiano, H. J. 2002. Sexual development of dairy bulls in the Mexican tropic. Theriogenology 58: 921-932.
Siemea, H., H. Oldenhofa and W. F. Wolkersb. 2016. Mode of action of cryoprotectants for sperm preservation. Animal Reproduction Science 169: 2-5.
Singh, A. K., V. K. Singh, B. M. Narwade, T. K. Mohanty and S. K. Atreja. 2012. Comparative quality assessment of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen chilled (5◦C) in egg yolk- and soya milk- based extenders. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 47: 596-600.
Singh, P. B. P. Sengupta and V. N. Tripathi. 2000. Effect of supplement amino acid feeding on sexual behaviour, quality and freezability of buffalo bull semen. 16:41-46.
Smith, J. C., Jr. 1982. Interrelationship of zinc and vitamin A metabolism in animal and human nutrition: a review. p.239. in: Clinical, biochemical, and nutritional aspects of trace elements. Alan R. Liss, Inc. New York.
Snoj, T., S. Kobal and G. Majdic. 2013. Effects of season, age, and breed on semen characteristics in different Bos taurus breeds in a 31-year retrospective study. Theriogenology 79: 847-852.
Soares, M. P., C. A. R. Rossi, A. Mezzalira and M. Cecim. 2002. Ethylene glycol on canine semen cryopreservation. Ciencia Rural 32: 649–655.
Söderquist, L., L. Janson, M. Håård and S. Einarsson. 1996. Influence of season, age, breed and some other factors on the variation in sperm morphological abnormalities in Swedish dairy A.I. bulls. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 44: 91-98.
Srivastava, N., A. Jerome, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Ghosh and A. Kumar. 2013. Bovine seminal PDC-109 protein: An overview of biochemical and functional properties. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 128: 1-13.
Stälhammar, E., L. Janson and J. Philipsson. 1989. Genetic studies on fertility in A.I. bulls. I. Age, season and genetic effects on semen characteristics in young bulls. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 19: 1-17.
Statistical Analysis System, SAS. 2016. User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 9.4 Edition. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.
Stevenson, J. S., J. J. Higgins, Y. Jung. 2009. Pregnancy outcome after insemination of frozen-thawed bovine semen packaged in two straw sizes: a meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 4432-4438.
Storey, B. T. 1997. Biochemistry of the induction and prevent ion of lipoperoxidative damage in human spermatozoa. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 3: 203-214.
Stradaioli, G., T. Noro, L. Sylla and M. Monaci. 2007. Decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in bovine sperm after cryopreservation: comparison between two extenders. Theriogenology 67: 1249-1255.
Swelum, A. A., H. A. Mansour, A. A. Elsayed and H. A. Amer. 2011. Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders. Theriogenology (2011). doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology .2011.04.015.
Taşdemi, U., S. Büyükleblebici, P. B. Tuncer, E. Coşkun, T. Ozgürtaş, F. N. Aydın, O. Büyükleblebici and I. S .Gürcan. 2011. Effects of various cryoprotectants on bull sperm quality, DNA integrity and oxidative stress parameters. Cryobiology. 66: 38-42.
Tatman, S. R., D. A. Neuendorff, T. W. Wilson and R. D. Randel. 2004. Influence of season of birth on growth and reproductive development of Brahman bulls. Theriogenology 62: 93-102.
Teixeira, H. C. A., N. V. Nascimento, C. McManus, A. A. Egito, A. D. S. Mariante and A. F. Ramos. 2011. Seasonal influence on semen traits and freezability from locally adapted Curraleiro bulls. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 125: 56-61.
the low-density lipoprotein fraction of hen''s egg yolk.
Therien, I., G. Bleau and P. Manjunath. 1995. Phosphatidylcholine-binding proteins of bovine seminal plasma modulates capacitation of spermatozoa by heparin. Biol. Reprod. 52: 1372-1379.
Therien, I., R. Moreau and P. Manjunath, 1999. Bovine seminal plasma phospholipids binding proteins stimulate phospholipids efflux from epididymal sperm. Biol. Reprod. 61: 590-598.
Thibier, M., and B. Guerin. 2000. Hygienic aspects of storage and use of semen for artificial insemination. Anim Reprod Sci. 62: 233-251.
Trimeche, A., M. Anton, P. Renard, G. Gandener and D. Tainturier. 1996. Quail egg yolk: A novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of Poitou jackass sperm. Cryobiology 34: 385-393.
Trzcińska, M. and M. Bryła. 2015. Apoptotic-like changes of boar spermatozoa in freezing media supplemented with different antioxidants. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 18: 473-480.
Tsutsui, T. 1988. Functional properties of heat-treated egg yolk low density lipoprotein. J. Food Sci. 53: 1103-1106.
Tuncer, P.B., M. N. Bucak, B. Serhat, S. Sarozkan, D. Yeni, A. Eken, P. P. Akalin, H. Kinet, F. Avdatek, A. F. Fidan and M. Gundogan. 2010. The effect of cystein and glutathione on sperm and oxidative stress parameter of post-thawed bull semen. Cryobiology 61: 303-307.
Uriu-Adams, J. Y. and C. L. Keen. 2010. Zinc and reproduction: effects of zinc deficiency on prenatal and early postnatal development. Birth defects research. Part B. Developmental and reproductive toxicology 89: 313-325.
Uysal, O., M. N. Bucak, I. Yavas and O. Varish. 2007. Effect of various antioxidants on the quality of frozen- thawed bull se1men. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 6: 1362–1366.
Van Demark, N. L. and R. E. Mauger. 1964. Effect of energy intake on reproductive performance of dairy bulls. I. growth, reproductive organs, and puberty. J. Dairy Sci. 47: 798-802.
Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, A.M., R. M. Haring, L. M. T. E. Kaal-Lansbergen and J. H. G den Dass. 2000. Fertility results using bovine semencryopreserved with extenders based on egg yolk and soy beanextract. Theriogenology 54: 57-67.
Varela Junior, A. S., C. D. Corcini, R. R. Ulguim, M. V. F. Alvarenga, I. Bianchi, M. N. Corrêa, T. Lucia Jr. and J. C. Deschamps. 2009. Effect of low density lipoprotein
Veerabramhaiah, K., A. Rao, V. H. Rao, K. Naidu and S. T. Rao. 2015. Efficacy of the Tris and Biociphos Plus extenders on the freezability of Punganue bull semen. Indian J. Anim Reprod. 32: 1-4.
Verstegen, J., M. Iguer-Ouada and K. Onclin. 2002. Computer assisted semen analyzers in andrology research and veterinary practice. Theriogenology 57: 149-179.
Vishwanath, R. and P. Shannon. 2000. Storage of bovine semen in liquid and frozen state. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 62: 23-53.
Wainer, R., F. Merlet, M. Bailly, R. Lombroso, E. Camus and J. P. Bisson.1996. Prognostic sperm factors in intraeterine insemination with partner s sperm. Contracept Ferti. Sex. 24: 897-903.
Wakamatu, T., Y. Sato and Y. Saito. 1982. Identification of the components responsible for the gelation of egg yolk during freezing. Agri. Biol. Chem. 46: 1495-1503.
Watson, P. 2000. The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved semen. Animal reproduction science 60: 481-492.
Watson, P. F., R. Kunze, P. Cramer, and R. H. Hammerstedt. 1992. A comparison of critical osmolality and hydraulic conductivity and its activation energy in fowl and bull spermatozoa. J. Androl. 13: 131-138.
Watson, P.F., 1995. Recent developments and concepts in the cryopreservation of spermatozoa and the assessment of their postthawing function. Reprod Fertil Dev. 7: 871-891.
Wilson, M. E., K. J. Rozeboom and T. D. Crenshaw. 2000. Boar Nutrition for optimum sperm production. Advances in pork production 15: 295-306.
Withers, L. A. and P. J. King. 1979. Proline: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of cultured cells of Zea mays. Plant Physiol. 64: 675-678.
Wodzicka-Tomaszewska, M., R. Kilgour and M. Ryan. 1981. “Libido” in the larger farm animals: A review. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 7: 203-238.
Woelders, H., A. Matthijs and B. Engel. 1997. Effects of trehalose and sucrose, osmolality of the freezing medium, and cooling rate on viability and intactness of bull sperm after freezing and thawing. Cryobiology 35: 93-105.
Wolf, F. R., J. O. Almquist and E. B. Hale. 1965. Prepuberal behavior and puberal characteristics of beef bulls in high nutrient allowance. J. Anim. Sci. 24: 761-765.
Yeste, M. 2016. Sperm cryopreservation update Cryodamage, markers,and factors affecting the sperm freezability in pigs. Theriogenology 85: 47–64.
Yeste, M., E. Estrada, E. Pinart, S. Bonet, J. Miróa and J. E. Rodríguez-Gil. 2016. The improving effect of reduced glutathione on boar sperm cryotolerance is related with the intrinsic ejaculate freezability. Cryobiology 68: 251-261.
Yeste, M., E. Estrada, L. G. Rocha, H. Marın, J. E. Rodrıguez-Gil and J. Miro. 2015. Cryotolerance of stallion spermatozoa is relat ed to ROSproduction and mitochondrial membrane potential rather than tothe integrity of sperm nucleus. Andrology 3: 395-407.
Yeste, M., E. Flores, E. Estrada, S. Bonet, T. Rigau and J. E. Rodríguez-Gil. 2012. Reduced glutathione and procaine hydrochloride protect the nucleoprotein structure of boar spermatozoa during freeze–thawing by stabilizing disulfide bonds. Reprod., Fertil. Dev. 25: 1036-1050.
Yildiz, C., Y. Bozkurt and I. Yavas. 2013. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm. Cryobiology 67: 91-94.
Young, J. S. 1974. Reproduction and nutrition in the beef herd. Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod 10: 45-54.
Zhou, J., L. Chen, J. Li, H. Li, Z. Hong, M. Xie, S. Chen, and B. Yao. 2015. The semen pH affects sperm motility and capacitation. PLoS ONE 10: e0132974.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20230212)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top