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研究生:張鈞喻
研究生(外文):Chun-Yu Chang
論文名稱:文心蘭葉片徵狀及植體成分對植株生育與開花品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Symptoms on the leaves and Plant Components affect Growth Development of plant and Flower Qualities on Oncidium Honey Angel
指導教授:林瑞松林瑞松引用關係詹富智
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Song LinFuh-Jyh Jan
口試委員:黃光亮
口試委員(外文):Kuang-Liang Huang
口試日期:2019-12-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物醫學暨安全農業碩士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:文心蘭葉片徵狀營養分析植體成分開花品質碳氮比
外文關鍵詞:Oncidiumsymptomsnutritional analysisplant componentsflower qualitiesC/N ratiocalciumironzinccopper
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本研究針對文心蘭切花品種Oncidium Honey Angel當代假球上方具有異常徵狀之上位葉,依徵狀表現形式分類,調查其花序品質,以及測定葉綠素、碳水化合物、大量元素與微量元素之後,進行植株營養生理指標與花序品質之比較。
上位葉徵狀發生初期,氣孔變黑,中後期變黑之氣孔周圍泛黃,形成黃色圖騰狀花斑、點斑或條斑。本研究將上位葉徵狀分為7組,包括:YFU (不均勻分布黃花狀塊斑)、YFE (均勻分布黃花狀塊斑)、YSU (不均勻分布點狀黃斑)、YSE (均勻分布點狀黃斑)、YST (葉緣黃條斑)、YME (均勻分布葉緣黃化),以及CK (對照組)。
本研究發現文心蘭上位葉若具有黃斑或黃化徵狀時,其葉片之葉綠素b含量受到影響,進而改變總葉綠素含量;換言之,葉片徵狀使葉綠體上的色素蛋白質複合體穩定度與葉綠素捕光、傳遞光能的功能下降。文心蘭之葉片徵狀除了降低光合作用之外,亦影響其上位葉與當代假球莖之碳水化合物利用與積貯,以及碳氮平衡。
本研究進一步比較文心蘭之6種葉片徵狀,可分為以下4項分析結果:其一、YFU與YSU因為黃斑分布過於集中,無法從試驗結果分析發生原因。其二、YST葉片之光合作用與生育狀況較其餘徵狀佳,與CK相近,但碳水化合物利用與積貯效率較為不佳。其三、YME葉片光合作用較低,碳水化合物積貯能力與碳氮比亦較低,植株生育較差。其四、YFE與YSE葉片受到鈣、鐵、鋅、銅缺乏之影響,表現初期葉肉組織透化,進而黃斑徵狀大量分布於葉片上之現象。YFE具有較低之光合作用,較低之碳水化合物利用或積貯,花序品質較差。YSE雖然光合作用較為不佳,但碳水化合物之利用與積貯較佳,當代假球莖碳氮比亦高,因此不論在花梗長度、小花枝分叉數、小花朵總數皆有較高之品質,甚至優於CK。
綜言之,文心蘭切花品質受制於碳氮比與鈣、鐵、鋅、銅之含量。植株在生育過程中遭受生理障礙或逆境壓力,反而使得花序品質上升,例如YSE之案例。而光合作用較佳之植株不一定有較佳之花序品質,如CK與YST之案例。對主要銷售切花之文心蘭產業而言,業者可持續關注植株發生YSE徵狀之環境限制條件與養分需求,以持續提升切花品質。
Several abnormal symptoms were found on the upper leaves of the current pseudobulbs in Oncidium Honey Angel. The main purpose of this study is to explore the influence of its growth and inflorescence qualities caused by those diverse symptoms. In this study, the different symptoms on the upper leaves were classified to investigate the qualities of the inflorescence determined by the nutrients of those plants, including the chlorophyll contents, the concentration of carbohydrates, macroelements, and microelements. Next, the comparison of nutrition physiological indicators and inflorescence qualities was made.
In the early stage of the development of symptoms, the stomata turned black. While the process continued, the area around stomata became yellow. In this study, the symptoms were divided into 7 groups, including YFU (uneven yellow flower mass spots), YFE (even yellow flower mass spots), YSU (uneven yellow spots), and YSE (even yellow spots), YST (yellow stripes on the edge), YME (even yellow margin), as well as CK (no symptoms/control group).
If the upper leaves of Oncidium Honey Angel had yellow-spotted or yellowing symptoms, the chlorophyll b contents were affected, which in turn changed the total chlorophyll contents. In other words, the stabilization of the protein complex on the chloroplasts and the function of light harvesting and transmission of chloropyhlls were degraded. The symptoms on the upper leaves generally reduced photosynthesis. Moreover, it also affected the utilization and accumulation of carbohydrates and the balance of C/N ratios in the upper leaves and the current pseudobulbs.
According to further analyses, four results were found as follows:
First of all, in YFU and YSU symptoms, the distribution of the spots on the upper leaves was too concentrated; therefore, no test results could be found.
Secondly, the photosynthesis and growth of YST plants were better than other symptoms, similar to CK plants. However, the efficiency of utilization and accumulation of carbohydrates were poor in YST leaves and pseudobulbs.
Thirdly, in YME symptoms, its efficiency of photosynthesis, concentration of carbohydrates and C/N ratios in leaves were reduced, which caused poor growth of plants.
Fourthly, under the calcium, iron, zinc and copper deficiency, the yellow-spotted symptoms were widely distributed on the YFE and YSE leaves. The upper leaves with YFE symptoms, which had poor photosynthesis as well as utilization and accumulation of carbohydrates, deteriorated the inflorescence qualities. Although YSE symptoms had poor photosynthesis in leaves, its utilization and accumulation of carbohydrates were better than other symptoms. The C/N ratios of the current pseudobulbs in YSE plants were higher than CK. All things considered, the length of stalks, the number of branches and florets of YSE plants had higher qualities than CK.
In all, the study indicated the inflorescence qualities were restricted by C/N ratios and the contents of calcium, iron, zinc and copper in Oncidium Honey Angel. The inflorescence qualities were increased due to physiological disorders or stress during the growth process, such as the case of YSE plants. However, plants with better photosynthesis did not have better inflorescence qualities, as in the case of CK and YST plants. The industry of Oncidium Honey Angel can pay much attention to the limits of environment or fertilizers in which the plants develop YSE symptoms, as a method of harvesting good qualities of cut flowers.
摘要 (Abstract) i
Abstract iii
目錄 (Contents) vi
圖目錄 (List of Figures) x
表目錄 (List of Tables) xii
第一章 前言 (Introduction) 1
第二章 前人研究 (Literature Review) 2
一、蘭科植物介紹 2
二、文心蘭分類、形態與生育習性 3
三、文心蘭假球莖與葉片之養分供需關係與其開花品質 6
四、環境因子對文心蘭之影響 9
五、大量元素與微量元素對植物之影響 11
六、感染蘭科植物之病毒 16
第三章 材料與方法 (Materials and Methods) 18
一、植物材料與栽培環境 18
二、試驗設計與研究架構 18
試驗一、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植株性狀調查與分類 22
(一) 文心蘭具有徵狀之上位葉性狀調查與分類 22
(二) 文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之葉片表皮組織與氣孔觀察 24
(三) 篩檢文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之病毒 24
試驗二、文心蘭上位葉徵狀對葉綠素含量、無機礦物元素及碳氮比之影響 25
(一) 葉綠素含量測定 25
(二) 植體成分分析 26
試驗三、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之葉片與假球莖生育對碳水化合物積貯之探討 31
(一) 碳水化合物測定 32
試驗四、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植體養分分析對其花序品質之影響 33
(一) 具有上位葉徵狀之文心蘭開花品質調查 33
(二) 植體養分分析 34
三、統計與分析 34
(一) 統計數據處理 34
(二) 相關性分析 35
第四章 結果 (Results) 37
試驗一、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植株性狀調查與分類 37
(一) 植株當代假球莖上方之上位葉葉片徵狀分類 37
(二) 具有徵狀之葉片組織觀察 38
(三) 篩檢文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之病毒 38
試驗二、文心蘭上位葉徵狀對葉綠素含量、無機礦物元素及碳氮比之影響 38
(一) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)葉綠素含量以及其間之相關性 39
(二) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)之無機礦物元素含量以及其間之相關性 39
(三) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)葉綠素對其植體成分之相關性 41
(四) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)之碳氮比以及其間之相關性 41
試驗三、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之葉片與假球莖生育對碳水化合物積貯之探討 42
(一) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)之碳水化合物含量以及其間之相關性 42
(二) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)碳水化合物對上位葉(LS)葉綠素之相關性 43
試驗四、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植體養分分析對其花序品質之影響 43
(一) 文心蘭花序外觀調查與品質分類 43
(二) 文心蘭當代假球莖(Pb)植體成分對花序品質之相關性 44
(三) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)碳氮比對花序品質之相關性 45
(四) 文心蘭上位葉(LS)與當代假球莖(Pb)碳水化合物對花序品質之相關性 45
第五章 討論 (Discussion) 83
試驗一、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植株性狀調查與分類 83
試驗二、文心蘭上位葉徵狀對葉綠素含量、無機礦物元素及碳氮比之影響 84
(一) 葉綠素a、葉綠素b與總葉綠素與文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之相關性 84
(二) 上位葉徵狀表現影響葉綠素變化與鎂、鈣、鐵等礦物元素之相關性 86
(三) 上位葉徵狀表現對植體礦物元素與碳氮比之相關性 87
試驗三、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之葉片與假球莖生育對碳水化合物積貯之探討 89
(一) 上位葉徵狀對總可溶性醣與澱粉含量變化之相關性 89
試驗四、文心蘭上位葉徵狀表現之植體養分分析對其花序品質之影響 90
(一) 植體碳水化合物與碳氮比對開花品質之相關性 91
(二) 植體礦物元素對開花品質之相關性 92
(三) 各徵狀之植體生育狀況對開花品質之相關性 92
第六章 結論 (Conclusions) 94
參考文獻 (References) 96
附錄 (Appendix) 110
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