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研究生:周伯瑄
研究生(外文):Po-Hsuan Chou
論文名稱:烤箱人還是披薩人?產品擬人化與成效擬人化對消費者購買意願之影響
論文名稱(外文):Mr. Oven or Mr. Pizza? The Influence of Product and Performance Anthropomorphismon Consumer’s Willingness to Buy
指導教授:黃文仙黃文仙引用關係
口試委員:楊俊明沈宗奇
口試日期:2019-05-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:行銷學系所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:擬人化心理模擬過程聚焦結果聚焦利益訴求享樂性功利性預期滿意度產品喜好度購買意願
外文關鍵詞:anthropomorphismmental simulationprocess-focusedoutcome-focusedbenefit claimutilitarianhedonicanticipating satisfactionproduct likingwillingness to buy
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擬人化策略(對非人類個體賦予與人類相似的特徵、動機、意圖或情緒)是廠商經常使用的行銷手法之一,而在相關的文獻當中也證實,將產品擬人化的確能為廠商帶來正面的影響。而從實務現象上卻發現,同樣的產品類別中,在廣告中有些廠商選擇將「產品(廣告中欲銷售的品項)」加以擬人化,例如:Persil 將洗衣精瓶身以朝氣滿滿的人型姿勢為設計;有些廠商卻選擇將成效將「成效(產品發揮功能後的成果)」加以擬人化,例如:OLA Oxipoder 衣物去汙劑的廣告將衣物以人的動作表現出擺脫髒污的樣貌。由於消費者在購買前評估產品未來的表現時會產生想像的心理狀態,故本研究欲探討,當消費者被廣告標語引導於不同的狀況之下時,應當借助何種擬人化對象的效果才能彰顯出產品的價值或利益,使消費者對預期未來對產品可能感到滿意的程度提高,進而產生較佳的產品喜好度及購買意願。
本研究以兩項二因子實驗說明擬人化類型(產品擬人、成效擬人)如何影響消費者對於產品的喜好度及購買意願。實驗一為3(擬人化類型:無擬人、產品擬人、成效擬人)X 2(心理模擬類型:過程聚焦、結果聚焦)之實驗設計,研究結果顯示:當過程聚焦時,產品擬人化相較於無擬人與成效擬人產生較高的產品喜好度及購買意願,而後兩者無顯著差異;當結果聚焦時,成效擬人化相較於無擬人與產品擬人產生較高的產品喜好度及購買意願,而後兩者無顯著差異。而實驗二為3(擬人化類型:無擬人、產品擬人、成效擬人)X 2(利益訴求類型:享樂性、功利性)之實驗設計,而研究結果顯示:當利益訴求為享樂性時,產品擬人化相較於無擬人與成效擬人產生較高的產品喜好度及購買意願,而後兩者無顯著差異;當利益訴求為功利性時,成效擬人化相較於無擬人與產品擬人產生較高的產品喜好度及購買意願,而後兩者無顯著差異。
Prior researches have shown that anthropomorphism on products or brands increases consumers’ preference. However, we found that the anthropomorphized agent can not only be product (e.g., Persil’s personified laundry detergent bottle) but also performance (e.g., a clean cloth which like a person gets rid of stains in the OLA Oxipoder commercial).
Therefore, the objectives of this study is clarify that (1) when consumers were led by different types of advertising slogans, which anthropomorphized agent (product or performance) would cause better product liking and willingness to buy? And (2) how will the anthropomorphized agent influence consumers’ anticipating satisfaction.
This research involved two experiments. The study utilized a 3 (anthropomorphized agent: product vs. performance vs. control) × 2 (mental simulation: process-focused vs. outcome-focused) between-subjects study design (Experiment 1) and a 3 (anthropomorphized agent: product vs. performance vs. control) × 2 (benefit claim type: hedonic vs. utilitarian) between-subjects study design (Experiment 2).
Result showed that, In Experiment 1, a comparison of the anthropomorphism conditions showed a main effect of anthropomorphized agent type and an interaction of mental simulation type × anthropomorphized agent type. We found that when the type of mental simulation is process-focused, consumers reported higher product liking and willingness to buy in the product anthropomorphism condition than that in the performance anthropomorphism and control condition, and there is no significant difference between the later. While when the type of mental simulation is outcome-focused, consumers reported higher product liking and willingness to buy in the performance anthropomorphism condition than that in the product anthropomorphism and control condition, and there is no significant difference between the later.
In Experiment 2, a comparison of the anthropomorphism conditions only showed an interaction of benefit claim type × anthropomorphized agent type. When the type of benefit claim is hedonic, consumers reported higher product liking and willingness to buy in the product anthropomorphism condition than that in the performance anthropomorphism and control condition, and there is no significant difference between the later. While when the type of benefit claim is utilitarian, consumers reported higher product liking and willingness to buy in the performance anthropomorphism condition than that in the product anthropomorphism and control condition, and there is no significant difference between the later.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與問題 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 擬人化 (anthropomorphism) 5
一、 擬人化之定義 5
二、 擬人化的手法 6
三、 擬人化之對象 7
四、 產品擬人化與成效擬人化 (product and performance anthropomorphism) 10
第二節 心理模擬類型 (mental simulation) 12
第三節 利益訴求類型 (benefit claim) 15
第四節 預期滿意度(anticipating satisfaction) 17
一、 預期滿意度 17
二、 擬人化類型與心理模擬對預期滿意度之影響 18
三、 擬人化類型與利益訴求對預期滿意度之影響 19
第三章 實驗一 21
第一節 研究方法 21
一、 研究架構 22
二、 研究設計 22
三、 研究變數之定義與衡量 25
第二節 實驗一資料分析與結果 29
一、 樣本敘述與信度分析 29
二、 操弄檢定 31
三、 假設驗證與分析 32
四、 中介效果檢定 37
第三節 實驗一小結 39
第四章 實驗二 41
第一節 研究方法 41
一、 研究架構 41
二、 研究設計 41
三、 研究變數之定義與衡量 45
第二節 實驗二資料分析與結果 46
一、 樣本敘述與信度分析 46
二、 操弄檢定 48
三、 假設驗證與分析 49
四、 中介效果檢定 53
第三節 實驗二小結 55
第五章 結論 56
第一節 研究結果 56
一、 擬人化類型與心理模擬類型之交互作用 56
二、 擬人化類型與利益訴求類型之交互作用 57
第二節 學術貢獻與實務意涵 59
一、 學術貢獻 59
二、 實務意涵 60
第三節 研究限制與未來研究方向 61
一、 產品與成效 61
二、 比較面向 61
三、 實驗產品選擇 61
四、 其他擬人化對象 62
五、 知覺流暢性(perceptual fluency) 62
參考文獻 63
附錄一 實驗一前測問卷 67
附錄二 實驗一正式問卷 68
附錄三 實驗二前測問卷 71
附錄四 實驗二正式問卷 73
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