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研究生:陳冠佑
研究生(外文):CHEN,GUAN-YOU
論文名稱:直流無刷馬達的無感測器驅動系統模擬分析與實作
論文名稱(外文):The Simulation and Implementation of Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Drive System
指導教授:賴秋庚
指導教授(外文):LAI,CHIU-KENG
口試委員:粘孝先劉文正羅永昌
口試委員(外文):NIAN,XIAO-XIANLIU,WEN-ZHENGLUO,YONG-CHANG
口試日期:2020-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:直流無刷馬達無感測器控制端電壓差六步方波調變FPGA
外文關鍵詞:Brushless DC MotorSensorless ControlTerminal Voltage DifferenceSix-step Square Wave InverterFPGA
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本論文藉由回授馬達端電壓,再經由低通濾波器與比較器後得到控制驅動器所需之換相信號,以取代原本的霍爾信號,並以此換相信號估測馬達轉速,省去對於利用增量編碼器等之速度回授需求。並利用脈波寬度調變(Pulse Width Modulation, PWM)技術控制開關導通時間,以產生驅動馬達所需之六步方波信號以控制直流無刷馬達(Brushless DC Motor, BLDCM)的運轉。回授的端電壓以線性運算放大器(OPA)做比較,估測的速度並以12次的移動平均(Moving Average)濾波器做平均。速度估測在馬達高速運轉下,由於馬達轉子角度過小,會造成馬達端電流過大問題。因此,在本論文中提出高速操作下的改進方法。本研究首先藉由MATLAB/Simulink做直流無刷馬達驅動的模擬,實作的控制部分則使用現場可程式規劃邏輯閘陣列(Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA)來完成PWM驅動與速度估測之設計。經由模擬與實驗驗證利用FPGA搭配端電壓差信號可以順利的讓直流無刷馬達在低、中與高速區間運轉。
In this paper, the commutation signal required to control the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive is obtained by feeding back the terminal voltage difference and then passing through low-pass filters and comparators. The resulting signals can be used to replace the Hall sensor signals for the six-step inverter. The commutation signals are also used to estimate the motor speed instead of the use of incremental encoders. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to process the control algorithms which include the starting, the speed estimation, the speed moving average, speed PI control. The system is first simulated by MATLAB/Simulink, and the resulting system without load is practical experiment on a 250 W BLDCM to evaluate the performances about the algorithm and the hardware structure.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XII
第一章 序論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機與方法 3
1.3論文架構 5
第二章 直流無刷馬達介紹 6
2.1前言 6
2.2直流無刷馬達簡介 6
2.3直流無刷馬達數學模型 7
第三章 直流無刷馬達無感測器驅動理論 10
3.1前言 10
3.2無感測器直流無刷馬達六步方波調變 11
3.3 PI控制器 16
3.4反電勢過零檢測 18
3.5脈波寬度調變(PWM)之原理 23
3.6速度估測 25
3.7無感測器低速與高速下操作 30
第四章 無感測器驅動系統模擬與結果分析 36
4.1前言 36
4.2 無感測器直流無刷馬達系統模擬 36
4.3 PWM模組 38
4.4變頻器模組 39
4.5端電壓濾波模組 40
4.6速度估測模組 42
4.7開關判斷模組 44
4.8線性PI模組 46
4.9模擬結果 48
第五章 實驗架構與結果分析 53
5.1控制板硬體說明 53
5.1.1 FPGA控制板簡介 53
5.1.2 ADC介紹 54
5.1.3 DAC介紹 56
5.2驅動器與周邊硬體說明 57
5.2.1驅動電路介紹 57
5.2.2 BLDCM位置偵測電路 61
5.3 Quartus II開發環境介紹 62
5.3.1 FPGA Altera Quartus II軟體介紹 62
5.3.2 Verilog Code之轉換 63
5.4實驗整體架構 69
5.4.1實驗架構說明 69
5.4.2 開迴路說明 72
5.4.3 閉迴路說明 73
5.5實驗結果 74
第六章 結論與未來展望 79
6.1結論 79
6.2未來展望 80
參考文獻 81

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[31]https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/MATLAB,關於講述MATLAB介紹
[32]https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B7%B4%E7%89%B9%E6%B2%83%E6%96%AF%E6%BB%A4%E6%B3%A2%E5%99%A8,關於講述巴特沃斯濾波器
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[35]https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%8C%AF%E9%88%B4 ,關於講述振鈴現象

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