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研究生:莊大軍
研究生(外文):Ta-ChunChuang
論文名稱:開發以混合實境為基礎之工程作業系統
論文名稱(外文):Developing the Mixed-Reality Based System for Construction Operations
指導教授:馮重偉馮重偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Wei Feng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:建築資訊模型混合實境工程作業流程雲端資料庫自然語言理解
外文關鍵詞:Building Information ModelingMixed-RealityEngineering WorkflowCloud DatabaseNatural Language Understanding
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
營建專案含有眾多工作項目,各工項作業在執行前需要取得相關的資訊。工程人員了解作業要領並攜帶所需工具、施工圖說、記錄表單後,才能夠前往工程現地確實施作。在作業執行完畢後需要對施作狀況進行記錄,並且將記錄保存與歸檔,才能夠確保工程施作品質。然而專案的資訊龐雜,如何快速取得作業所需之資料與存取作業流程產生之數據將會是重點研究議題。
實務上,平面圖說所呈現之施工資訊使工程人員不易快速進行空間判讀,且以紙本表單記載工程作業的執行狀況有數據誤植或遺失紙本的可能。此外作業人員需要額外進行紙本數據電子化建檔的程序,可見當前工程資訊於傳遞方面仍缺乏即時性與正確性。
現今科技發展日新月異,營建業導入建築資訊模型作為資訊的載體並且提供三維空間資訊,有助於彙整專案資訊並提升作業人員空間判讀能力。然而過往研究指出此技術在工程現地資訊取得的操作方式較為複雜,過多的資訊內容使作業人員需要花費相當時間才能獲取所需資訊。此外,建築資訊模型缺乏現地定位機制,且全虛擬的環境難以反映與專案現場的差異,上述問題導致建築資訊模型無法在現地發揮全部的應用價值。
為解決上述問題,本研究首先以專家訪談與IDEF0方法解析工程作業流程所需之資訊需求與操作需求,並且制定符合混合實境需求之建築資訊模型建模準則與模型資訊導入混合實境之架構。接著在混合實境專案中開發多種可協助工程作業流程之功能與模型輕量化機制,並且串接雲端自然語言理解模型與雲端即時資料庫功能。最終將開發完成之專案發佈至頭戴式混合實境設備中成為應用程式,供作業人員攜帶至現地協助工程作業流程。
本研究所開發之混合實境工程作業系統,將建築資訊模型導入混合實境環境中,藉由開發模型定位方法,使虛擬模型與真實環境重合,提供作業人員沉浸式的操作介面。另外,可依人員所在座標位置、本次將執行任務項目、不同系統介面等條件進行模型輕量化,避免過多的資訊呈現。人員亦可使用自然語言方式呼叫混合實境功能,包含取得圖說資訊或者執行空間導航至作業地點、查驗表單註記、拍照紀錄等。而在作業結束後,可以將檢查表單、人員歷史座標數據與時間戳資訊保存至雲端資料庫中,日後可以利用上述數據搭配影片紀錄以驗證表單數據之真實性。綜上所述,本研究所開發之混合實境系統能夠有效提升工程作業流程的效率與資訊正確性。
Engineering project contains many work items, and different work items need to obtain relevant information before the execution of the work. Engineers need to know the essentials of the operation and carry the necessary tools, construction drawings, and checklists before they can go to the site to carry out the work. After the operation is completed, it is necessary to record the operation status and file the records to ensure the quality of the project operation. In addition, the construction information presented by 2D drawings makes it difficult for engineers to quickly understand the 3D space situation, and there is a possibility of data being mistakenly inserted or lost in paper form. Moreover, engineers need to carry out additional procedures for electronic filing of paper data, which shows that the current project information is still lacking in immediacy and accuracy in terms of transmission.
This study integrates BIM, MR, NLU and cloud database applications, and develops BIM model positioning methods and lightweight mechanism to avoid excessive information presentation. Engineers can also interact with HoloLens devices through natural language to obtain information and functions needed for engineering operations. In addition, the coordinate information of the operator will be stored in the cloud database to verify the authenticity of the checklist data in the future. The case shows that the MR-Based system proposed in this study can effectively improve the efficiency of operation workflow and the accuracy of information.
摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍 4
1.4 研究流程 5
1.5 論文架構 7
第二章 問題陳述與文獻回顧 8
2.1 研究問題陳述 8
2.1.1 工程作業流程中涉及大量資訊處理 8
2.1.2 BIM模型於工地作業中即時取用的困難 9
2.1.3 現有AR設備與MR設備操作功能的互動性 9
2.2 工程作業資訊與操作需求 11
2.3 建築資訊模型於現地使用狀況 13
2.4 室內空間定位機制 17
2.4.1 標記點定位系統 17
2.4.2 空間特徵點定位系統 18
2.4.3 定位系統小結 20
2.5 混合實境(MR) 20
2.6 自然語言理解(NLU) 23
2.7 小結 24
第三章 研究方法 26
3.1 需求分析工具 27
3.1.1 專家訪談 27
3.1.2 IDEF0 27
3.2 BIM建模工具 29
3.2.1 Autodesk Revit 29
3.2.2 Autodesk Dynamo 30
3.3.3Autodesk 3DsMax 31
3.3 混合實境開發工具 31
3.3.1 Microsoft HoloLens 32
3.3.2 Unity 34
3.3.3 Mixed Reality Toolkit (MRTK) 35
3.3.4 Microsoft Visual Studio 35
3.4 自然語言模型開發工具 36
3.5 雲端資料庫開發工具 38
第四章 研究模式與研究成果 39
4.1 解析工項作業流程 42
4.1.1 解析工程作業流程需求 42
4.1.2 解析混合實境應用程式所需資訊與操作需求 43
4.2 符合工程作業需求之BIM模型 44
4.2.1 BIM模型建置規範 45
4.2.2 制定BIM資料的導出規則 46
4.3 開發混合實境專案 46
4.3.1 分析工程作業情境 46
4.3.2 建立混合實境與BIM的連結規則 50
4.3.3 制定混合實境應用程式架構 53
4.4 建置雲端語言理解模型 65
4.4.1 設置雲端語言理解模型所需資源 65
4.4.2 發展語言模型架構 66
4.5 建構雲端即時資料庫 70
4.6 開發以混合實境為基礎之工程作業系統 70
4.6.1 與雲端語言模組的整合 71
4.6.2 與雲端資料庫的串接 74
4.7 小結 76
第五章 案例驗證 77
5.1 案例介紹 77
5.2 解析作業流程需求 80
5.3 符合作業需求之BIM模型 82
5.4 創建雲端語言理解模型 84
5.5 建構雲端即時資料庫 85
5.6 開發Unity專案與封裝 85
5.7 現地作業流程模擬 88
5.8 小結 97
第六章 結論與建議 98
6.1 結論 98
6.2 未來研究之建議 99
參考文獻 101
附錄 105
附錄A 訪談紀錄 105
附錄B 訪談紀錄 107
英文文獻
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[4] Dongsik Jo, Gerard Jounghyun Kim, “ARIoT: scalable augmented reality framework for interacting with Internet of Things appliances everywhere, IEEE, Volume 62, pp. 334-340, 2016.
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[7] Günther Riexinger, Andreas Kluth, Manuel Olbrich, Jan-Derrik Braun, Thomas Bauernhansl, “Mixed Reality for On-Site Self-Instruction and Self-Inspection with Building Information Models, Procedia CIRP, Volume 72, Pages 1124-1129, 2018.
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[9] Jad Chalhoub, Steven K. Ayer, “Using Mixed Reality for electrical construction design communication, Automation in Construction, Volume 86, Pages 1-10, 2018.
[10] Kinam Kim, Hongjo Kim, Hyoungkwan Kim, “Image-based construction hazard avoidance system using augmented reality in wearable device, Automation in Construction, Volume 83, Pages 390-403, 2017.
[11] Khaled El Ammari, Amin Hammad, “Remote interactive collaboration in facilities management using BIM-based mixed reality, Automation in Construction, Volume 107, 102940, 2019.
[12] Michael Chu, Jane Matthews, Peter E.D.Love, “Integrating mobile Building Information Modelling and Augmented Reality systems: An experimental study, Automation in Construction, Volume 85, Pages 305-316, 2018.
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[14] Paul MILGRAM, Fumio KISHINO, “A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays, IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems, Vol.E77-D No.12, pp.1321-1329, 1994.
[15] Richard A. Newcombe, Shahram Izadi, Otmar Hilliges, David Molyneaux, David Kim ,Andrew J. Davison, Pushmeet Kohli ,Jamie Shotton ,Steve Hodges ,Andrew Fitzgibbon, “KinectFusion: Real-Time Dense Surface Mapping and Tracking, IEEE, pp. 127-136 ,2011.
[16] Shahram Izadi , David Kim, Otmar Hilliges , David Molyneaux, Richard Newcombe , Pushmeet Kohli , Jamie Shotton , Steve Hodges , Dustin Freeman , Andrew Davison , Andrew Fitzgibbon, “KinectFusion: Real-time 3D Reconstruction and Interaction Using a Moving Depth Camera, Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, Pages 559-568, 2011.
[17] Sebastjan Meža, Žiga Turk, Matevž Dolenc, Component based engineering of a mobile BIM-based augmented reality system, Automation in Construction, Volume 42, Pages 1-12, 2014.
[18] Songfei Wu, Qiyu Shen, Yichuan Deng, Jack Cheng, “Natural-language-based intelligent retrieval engine for BIM object database, Computers in Industry, Volume 108, Pages 73-88, 2019.
[19] Sepehr Alizadehsalehi, Ahmad Hadavi, Joseph Chuenhuei Huang, From BIM to extended reality in AEC industry, Automation in construction, Volume 116, 103254, 2020.
[20] XiaoLi, WenYi, Hung-LinChi, Xiangyu Wang, Albert P.C.Chan, “A critical review of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications in construction safety, Automation in Construction, Volume 86, Pages 150-162, 2018.
[21] Yu-Cheng Lin, Jun-Xiong Chang, Yu-Chih Su, Developing construction defect management system using BIM technology in quality inspection, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Volume 22, Pages 903-914, 2016.
[22] Ying Zhou, Hanbin Luo, Yiheng Yang, “Implementation of augmented reality for segment displacement inspection during tunneling construction, Automation in Construction, Volume 82, Pages 112-121, 2017.
[23] Add Firebase to your Unity project, Available: https://firebase.google.com/docs/unity/setup
[24] HOW TO USE TEXT TO SPEECH IN YOUR HOLOLENS APPS, Available: https://codeholo.com/2018/04/12/texttospeech-tutorial-hololens/
[25] TAKE PHOTOS AND VIDEOS FROM WITHIN A HOLOLENS APPLICATION, Available: https://codeholo.com/2019/04/19/take-photo-and-video-and-play-it-back-in-hololens-apps/
[26] Unity Scripting Reference Version: 2017.4, Available: https://docs.unity3d.com/2017.4/Documentation/ScriptReference/
[27] What is the Mixed Reality Toolkit, Available: https://github.com/microsoft/MixedRealityToolkit-Unity

中文文獻
[1] 陳俊瑋, “開發以混合實境為基礎之現地施工進度追蹤及查核系統, 碩士論文, 國立成功大學土木工程學研究所, 台南市, 2019.
[2] 梁高逢, “應用擴增實境及建築資訊模型輔助機電設備施作及查核作業, 第22屆營建工程與管理學術研討會. 2018:54.
[3] 黃士豪, “應用擴增實境及建築資訊模型於維護作業之空間分析-以機電設備為例, 碩士論文, 國立成功大學土木工程學研究所, 台南市, 2018.
[4] 行政院公共工程委員會主管法規查詢系統—品質計畫製作綱要Available:http://lawweb.pcc.gov.tw/LawContent.aspx?id=FL031657#lawmenu
[5] 2019/04/12成大Azure AI Cognitive services體驗課程, Available: https://hackmd.io/@pFZzc6vjQyGdg9kuicjbaQ/SJLFKB2F4?type=view&fbclid=IwAR1G6bB3Bt5Jwo0OeZ11NCBlsJQYaIAIm_UYZOsr0oB-HKrXgg06W6-gjlc
[6] HoloLens官網. Microsoft 混合實境技術 HoloLens (第1 代) 硬體詳細資料 Available:https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-tw/windows/mixed-reality/hololens-hardware-details
[7] MR 和 Azure 303:自然語言理解(LUIS), Available: https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-tw/windows/mixed-reality/mr-azure-303
[8] Rule-based vs. NLU, Available: https://medium.com/@estelle.husky/rule-based-vs-nlu-%E8%81%8A%E5%A4%A9%E6%A9%9F%E5%99%A8%E4%BA%BA%E5%A6%82%E4%BD%95%E8%81%BD%E6%87%82%E4%BA%BA%E9%A1%9E%E7%9A%84%E8%87%AA%E7%84%B6%E8%AA%9E%E8%A8%80-17065de49a
[9] 邱勇標, Unity 3D遊戲設計實戰, 碁峰資訊, 臺北市, 2017.
[10] 蔡文龍, 歐志信, 張傑瑞, 何叡, Visual C# 2017基礎必修課, 碁峰資訊, 臺北市, 2017.
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