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研究生:陳怡安
研究生(外文):Yi-AnChen
論文名稱:建構另類房地產交易平台架構-以區塊鏈技術為分析基礎
論文名稱(外文):Establishing an Alternative Real Estate Trading Framework Based on the Blockchain Technology
指導教授:馮重偉馮重偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Wei Feng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:房地產交易區塊鏈智能合約數位貨幣拍賣銷售策略共享經濟
外文關鍵詞:BlockchainSmart ContractCryptocurrencyReal Estate TransactionAuctionSharing economy
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在全球經濟中,房地產可算是最龐大的資產類別,其高價值與高單價的特性,導致雙方在進行房地產交易時,常需要仰賴第三方仲介、代書、銀行的介入,來為對方做擔保以形成一個可信任的交易環境,而交易過程可分作刊屋、看屋、簽約、用印、完稅、交屋六大階段,買賣雙方需辦理簽約、繳稅、過戶等作業流程,然而因稅務的計算複雜與繁瑣,常需委託專業人士來進行計算、納稅與轉移產權,因此有別於其他資產交易,房地產交易具高交易成本、進入門檻高的現象 (Dijkstra, 2017) 。除此之外,因房地產的價值相對高昂,買家多半需申請貸款來分期支付,然而資格證明之資料取得與整理不易,且銀行皆透過人工驗證的方式來進行審查,不但降低了個人資料的安全性,也拉長了交易之時間成本。

近年來,區塊鏈技術(Blockchain Technology)的出現顛覆了許多傳統行業,其去中心化、透明化、不可篡改的特性改變了許多原有的運作模式。此外,藉由智能合約(Smart Contract)一旦觸發即可自動執行條款任務的特點,大幅擴展區塊鏈技術的應用領域與功能,至今已非侷限於金融行業,然而對於房地產界的發展多應用在房地產的資產登錄與租賃中,較未能有效地改變現今的交易模式。因此,發展一套能夠降低房地產交易對第三方仲介需求且安全的交易環境,將能改善現有的房地產產業並提升交易效率。

對於房地產交易成本高與身份資格申請不易等問題,本研究將結合區塊鏈(Blockchain)技術,建置一個另類的房地產交易平台之架構,透過智能合約與銀行金融機構連結,直接提取用戶身份驗證所需之資料且自動執行資格審查與驗證,再使用數位貨幣作為此交易平台中的交易貨幣,最後將此交易模式運行於區塊鏈的分佈式網絡中,並藉由共識機制來驗證交易內容的特性,提供一個安全、具信任且去中心化的交易環境。
透過本文所提出的房屋交易架構,用戶可運用拍賣的銷售策略使房屋的價格達到市場共識的售價,並藉由區塊鏈、智能合約的應用,達到一個買賣雙方 P2P 的交易模式,以便降低過去仰賴第三方所需支付的交易成本,並提高用戶身份驗證之資料收集與審查流程之效率,最終形成一個更完善的房地產交易市場。
In the global economy, real estate is considered to be the largest asset category. In order to form a trusted trading environment. High value and high unit price characteristics of real estate cause both parties to rely on the intervention of third-party intermediaries, agents, and banks to guarantee the other party when carrying out real estate transactions. During the transaction, buyers and sellers need to go through the contract signing, tax payment, and transfer procedures. However, the tax calculation is complicated and cumbersome, and it is often necessary to entrust professionals to calculate, pay taxes and transfer property rights. Therefore, unlike other asset transactions, real estate transactions have high transaction costs and high barriers to entry (Dijkstra, 2017). In addition, most buyers need to apply for a loan to pay in installments because the value of real estate is quite high. Nevertheless, the qualification certificate information is not easy to obtain and collate, and the banks are all reviewed by manual verification, which not only reduces the security of personal data, but also increases the transaction time.

In recent years, the innovative technology, which is called blockchain technology, has attracted huge amounts of attention from many traditional industries, like financial industry, academics, and policy-makers. The blockchain has the features of transparency, decentralization, and non-tampering to change many original operating modes. In addition, the smart contract can automatically execute the terms and tasks once it is triggered, which will greatly expand the application field and functions of blockchain technology. So far, the application of blockchain has been in the fields of finance and non-finance. However, the development of the real estate industry is mostly used in real estate asset registration and leasing, and it has failed to effectively change the current transaction model. Therefore, the development of a safe transaction environment that can reduce the need for third-party intermediaries in real estate transactions will improve the real estate market and increase transaction efficiency.
For the problems of high real estate transaction costs and difficulty in applying for identity qualification, this study will combine blockchain technology to establish an alternative real estate trading platform framework. In order to directly extract the information required for the user identity verification and automatically perform verification review, this platform will be linked to bank financial institutions through smart contracts. Then use digital currency as the transaction currency in this trading platform. Finally, this transaction mode is run in the distributed network of the blockchain, and through the characteristics of the consensus mechanism, it provides a secure, trusted, and decentralized transaction environment.

Through the real estate trading framework proposed in this study, users can use the auction to make the price of the house reach the consensus market price. Moreover, through the application of blockchain and smart contracts, a P2P transaction model for buyers and sellers is achieved. In the first, it can reduce the transaction costs that rely on third parties in the past. Secondly, it can improve the efficiency of the data collection and review process of user identity verification. Finally, it will form a more complete real estate transaction market.
摘要 II
Abstract IV
致謝 IX
目錄 X
表目錄 XIV
圖目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍與假設 4
1.4 研究流程 5
1.5 論文架構 8
第二章 問題陳述與文獻回顧 9
2.1 研究問題陳述 9
2.1.1 房地產市場 9
2.1.2 房地產市場現象與問題 10
2.1.3 房地產之產權轉移流程 10
2.2 區塊鏈 (Blockchain) 11
2.2.1 區塊鏈介紹 12
2.2.2 區塊鏈之發展 16
2.3 數位貨幣 18
2.3.1 數位貨幣介紹 18
2.3.2 數位貨幣應用 20
2.4 智能合約 (Smart Contract) 21
2.4.1 智能合約之介紹 22
2.4.2 智能合約之應用 24
2.5 金融科技 (Financial Technology, FinTech) 24
2.5.1 金融科技之介紹 25
2.5.2 金融科技之應用 25
2.5.3 共享經濟的概念 26
2.6 區塊鏈在房地產領域之應用發展 26
2.7 拍賣活動 28
2.7.1 拍賣之交易策略 28
2.7.2 房屋拍賣行為 30
2.8 小結 31
第三章 研究方法 33
3.1 房地產市場分析工具 33
3.1.1 社會網絡分析法 Social Network Analysis 33
3.1.2 Gephi 分析法 34
3.2 Use Case 智能合約架構設計 35
第四章 以區塊鏈為基礎之另類房地產交易架構 39
4.1 現行房地產交易市場 41
4.1.1 房地產市場解析 41
4.1.2 房屋貸款申請 45
4.1.3 房地產市場之問題探討 47
4.2 另類房地產交易架構 49
4.2.1 賣場架構 50
4.2.1.1 準備階段 50
4.2.1.2 入場階段 58
4.2.1.3 拍賣階段 59
4.2.1.4 結標階段 62
4.2.2 商場架構 64
4.3 區塊鏈之應用架構 64
4.3.1 數位貨幣交易形式 65
4.3.2 智能合約的應用與驗證架構 68
4.4 小結 76
第五章 架構模擬結果及分析探討 78
5.1 市場架構背景介紹 78
5.2 市場中參與人心態 79
5.2.1賣家 79
5.2.2 顧客 80
5.2.3 商家 81
5.2.4 廣告商 81
5.3 交易架構運作分析 82
5.3.1 賣場相關議題 82
5.3.2 平台相關議題 87
5.3.3 連結單位相關議題 88
5.4 問題分析與探討 90
5.5 架構所改善之處 94
5.6 小結 97
第六章 結論與建議 98
6.1 結論 98
6.2 未來研究之建議 99
參考文獻 101
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