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研究生:許凱閔
研究生(外文):Kai-MinHsu
論文名稱:生質尼龍的合成與奈米纖維膜抗菌分析
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication and characterization of bionylon-56 nanofiber membranes for antibacterial activity
指導教授:吳意珣
指導教授(外文):I-Son Ng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:戊二胺生質尼龍奈米纖維PHMB海藻酸鈉抗菌材料綠色生物製程
外文關鍵詞:Bio-nylonPA56cadaverinePHMBnanofiberantibacterial activity
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生質尼龍是一種具有發展潛力的環保再生材料。近幾年利用微生物發酵法生產生質尼龍以取代傳統石化製程得到了廣泛的關注,因其性質與傳統化學合成之尼龍相似,且具有生物分解及生物相容等特性,能適用於醫療材料中。本研究探討一連續的綠色生物製程,從戊二胺生產到奈米纖維的製作與改質,開發出具有抗菌能力的奈米纖維膜。
首先,以0.05 mg/mL ~0.2 mg/mL NTG 化學誘變法使谷胺酸桿菌生產高濃度的賴胺酸,其菌株存活率大於 50 %,挑選平板上周圍有紅色變化的誘變菌株分別於 LB及 M9Y 培養基進行培養,結果顯示相較於野生種菌株,誘變菌株的生長皆較差,在加入 5 g/L Yeast extract 的 LB 培養基,發現誘變菌株可以生產0.5 g/L 及0.6 g/L 賴胺酸,高於野生種菌株的賴胺酸濃度,然而在 M9Y 培養基中,誘變菌株以酪胺酸為主要產物,賴胺酸則為次級產物。
選用高拷貝單質體系統於大腸桿菌 BL21(DE3) 表達賴胺酸脫羧酶 (LdcC),通過全細胞催化賴胺酸生產戊二胺,發現 LdcC 的最佳酶活反應條件為 pH 5,利用1 M 賴胺酸為底物反應 6 小時後可轉化生成92 g/L 戊二胺,轉化率可達 90 %,利用丁酮為萃取溶劑再經由蒸餾可得到純度為 95 % 的戊二胺。
將純化的戊二胺與二元酸合成尼龍鹽前體,此生物製程取得的尼龍鹽56 及尼龍鹽512 均有耐熱性及熱穩定性。進一步以固態溶熔聚合法合成尼龍56 及尼龍512,由示差掃描熱分析儀 (DSC) 及熱重分析 (TGA) 分析其熔點分別為 250 oC 及 206 oC、結晶點分別為 220 oC 及 186 oC、降解溫度分別為 421 oC 及 469 oC。最後通過電紡絲裝置製備尼龍奈米纖維,在電子顯微鏡觀察下 (SEM),尼龍56 及尼龍512 直徑分別為 95.1 nm 及 104 nm。藉由 Reactive Red 141 染劑與纖維駐色,引入亞硫酸根離子鍵提升抗菌劑 PHMB 的固定效率,其抗菌纖維對於大腸桿菌Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) 及假單孢菌 Pseudomonas putida 有良好的抗菌特性。不同改質條件下,以海藻酸鈉改質的膜片中,海藻酸鈉吸附量為 5.56 g/g,PHMB 吸附量為 0.1 g/g,對於大腸桿菌與假單孢菌的抗菌率分別為 96.7 % 及 100 %。本實驗完成了綠色生物製程的尼龍纖維膜製備,對於尼龍的改質及抗菌等特性仍需深入研究,以提升其應用價值。
The continuous development of biomaterial polyamide 56 (PA56) and 512 (PA512) nanofiber membranes via electrospinning is synthesized by a green bioprocess in this study. At first, cadaverine was bioconversion from lysine through lysine decarboxylase (LdcC) in E. coli. The LdcC can achieve nearly 90% conversion to produce 92 g/L cadaverine from 1 M lysine and showed enzyme activity with wide pH range. Then bio-polyamide 56 (i.e, PA56) and bio-polyamide 512 (i.e, PA512) were polymerized from cadaverine with adipic acid. The bio-nylon 56 and 512 was further synthesized via melt polymerization. The melting point and crystallization point for PA56 were 250oC and 220oC, which were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For PA512, the melting point and crystallization point were 206oC and 186oC, respectively.
Whereas the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyzes for degradation temperature were 421°C and 469oC for PA56 and PA512, respectively. Afterwards, PA56 and PA512 nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) acted as a supporting layer and further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Reactive Red 141 was directly reacted with amino group of PA56 and PA512 to form dyed membranes (P-Dye) and enhanced poly-(hexamethylene biguanide) (PHMB) grafting on PAM and achieved PHMB modified membranes (P-Dye-PHMB). The modified membranes were examined for the antibacterial activity against pathogens which showed the excellent activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida for PA56 nanofiber membrane, but no antibacterial effect for PA512 nanofiber membrane. The results indicate that P-Dye-PHMB is a potential material for biomedical applications and functional textiles.
摘要 I
Extend Abstract II
誌謝 X
目錄 XI
表目錄 XIV
圖目錄 XV
符號 XVII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究與目的與架構 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 谷胺酸桿菌及賴胺酸的發展 3
2.1.1 谷胺酸桿菌簡史 3
2.1.2 賴胺酸合成代謝途徑 3
2.1.3 賴胺酸目前在全球的進展 4
2.2 誘變技術提升胺基酸產量 4
2.2.1 化學誘變 4
2.2.2 物理誘變 5
2.2.3 生物誘變 5
2.2.4 篩選平台的建立 6
2.3 生質尼龍介紹 7
2.3.1 二元胺與二元酸 7
2.3.2 聚合方法 12
2.4 通過電紡絲製備尼龍奈米纖維薄膜 14
2.4.1 電紡絲原理及製備過程 14
2.4.2 不同參數影響奈米纖維的表現性 14
2.4.3 抗菌性奈米纖維的原理及應用 16
2.4.4 奈米纖維在其他功能性材料上的應用 18
第三章 實驗材料與方法 20
3.1 實驗藥品 20
3.2 實驗儀器 23
3.3 菌株及質體材料 24
3.4 溶液配製 25
3.5 實驗方法 26
3.5.1 菌株培養及保存 26
3.5.2 谷胺酸桿菌誘變及篩選 27
3.5.3 基因工程大腸桿菌以全細胞催化生產戊二胺 28
3.5.3.1 不同表達系統的 LdcC 質體在大腸桿菌中的生長比較 28
3.5.3.2 以pSIT系統的單質體LdcC在大腸桿菌中以全細胞催化生產戊二胺 28
3.5.3.3 Ninhydrin 呈色法檢測賴胺酸濃度 29
3.5.4 一維蛋白質電泳分析 29
3.5.4.1 SDS-PAGE 配製 29
3.5.4.2 蛋白質電泳分析步驟 30
3.5.5 高效能液相層析 (HPLC) 分析: 戊二胺及胺基酸濃度測定 30
3.5.6 利用萃取與蒸餾提純戊二胺 33
3.5.7 尼龍56、510、512鹽合成 33
3.5.8 一步法合成尼龍56鹽 33
3.5.9 尼龍56、510、512聚合 34
3.5.10 尼龍鹽與尼龍鑑定與分析 34
3.5.10.1 示差掃描熱分析 (DSC) 34
3.5.10.2 熱重分析 (TGA) 34
3.5.11 尼龍奈米纖維製備 35
3.5.12 尼龍奈米纖維特性分析 35
3.5.12.1 尼龍奈米纖維改質 35
3.5.12.2 化學物質於膜片上的吸附測定 36
3.5.12.3 抗菌活性定性分析 38
3.5.12.4 抗菌活性定量分析 39
第四章 結果與討論 40
4.1 谷胺酸桿菌的誘變與篩選 40
4.1.1 誘變菌株的存活率 40
4.1.2 平板篩選 41
4.1.3 HPLC之胺基酸分析 43
4.2 戊二胺生產的分析與鑑定 45
4.2.1 LdcC於大腸桿菌中的生長 45
4.2.2 全細胞催化反應生產戊二胺 46
4.2.3 戊二胺純化分離與鑑定 48
4.3 尼龍鹽合成 52
4.3.1 不同參數對於尼龍鹽製備的影響 52
4.3.2 不同溶劑系統對尼龍鹽製備的影響 52
4.3.3 不同來源戊二胺對尼龍鹽製備的影響 53
4.3.4 一步法合成尼龍鹽 55
4.4 尼龍合成 55
4.4.1 DSC分析 55
4.4.2 TGA分析 56
4.5 尼龍於電紡絲合成奈米纖維 57
4.5.1 奈米纖維的鑑定與分析 58
4.5.2 奈米纖維於抗菌活性的應用 61
4.5.2.1 尼龍-染劑-PHMB 62
4.5.2.2 尼龍56-幾丁聚醣-染劑-PHMB與尼龍56-海藻酸鈉-PHMB 63
第五章 結論與未來展望 70
5.1 結論 70
5.2 未來展望 71
第六章 參考文獻 72
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