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論文名稱(外文):Case Study on Threat-related Intensifiers
指導教授(外文):Shelley Ching-yu Depner
外文關鍵詞:Mandarin ChineseMexican Spanishcontrastive studyemotive intensifiersNatural Semantic Metalanguage
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探討文化與情 感 表達關係 的語言學研究至今 遠遠不及 心理學領域的成果 不同文化所發展的情 感 表達規則成為人們 表達情感時所 依循的內在機制 Matsumoto, 2006 。
本文旨在比較研究 中文 與墨西哥西班牙 文 中情緒強化副詞 的使用以 認識了解其在 情感 表達 上 的 運作 以 「 評估論 」 Appraisal Theory, Martin & Rose, 2007 與 自然語義理論 Natural Semantic Metalanguage, Goddard & Wierzbicka, 2014)為理論基礎 分析中文與西班牙文中的情緒強化副詞 。 語料取材自中研院 現代漢語平衡語料庫 5.0版 、 中文十億詞語料庫第二版 與 西班牙皇家語言學院 的二十一世紀西班牙語語料庫CORPES XXI 0.83 。 研究結果顯示中文在 情感 隱晦表達的詞語比例 遠高於西班牙文 ,表示中文 比西班牙文在 言語 情感表達上 有更多抑制與調 整 。 中文的情感表達 含蓄婉轉, 不外顯於字面意義上, 而 需經過 聆聽者 的詮釋解讀。 透過 對 人性中普遍的恐懼害怕或是外在人事物的評價所表達的諷刺意味是中文裡另一個用來表露負面情緒的方式 。 此外, 主語的省略或替代也是 中文裡 情感抑制的另一表現。
To date, cultural influence on expression of emotion has been intensively explored in psychological but not as much in linguistic field. Different cultures develop different emotion expression norms and people learn to regulate their emotion expressions based on the internalized norms (Matsumoto, 2006). The present study probes into the Mandarin Chinese and Mexican Spanish emotive intensifiers, making a cross linguistic comparison to find out how expression of feelings operates. Threat-motivated emotive intensifiers in Mandarin Chinese and Mexican Spanish are the language focus of analysis. Data retrieved from Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese (5.0), Chinese GigaWordCorpus second edition and El Corpus del Español del Siglo XXI (0.83) were first analyzed by the framework of Appraisal Theory (Martin & Rose, 2007) and then examined by means of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (Goddard & Wierzbicka, 2014). The results show that Mandarin Chinese significantly surpasses Mexican Spanish in the percentage of tokens signifying indirect display of feelings in four categories: implicit, action, judgment and appreciation. These findings demonstrate an inclination that there is more inhibition, regulation of expression of feelings in Mandarin Chinese than in Mexican Spanish. In Mandarin Chinese, the display of feelings is unobtrusive and wrapped in the implicit tokens and requires unpacking by the listener. Sarcasm is another tool found in Mandarin Chinese data that assists speakers in expressing their negative evaluations through universally accepted emotion such as fear, fright, judgment and appreciation. Moreover, avoidance of first-person pronoun in intensifying constructions is more frequent in Mandarin Chinese than in Mexican Spanish.
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement III
Table of Contents IV
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII
Conventions IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background of this Study 1 1.2 Purpose and Research Questions 2 1.3 Organization of the Thesis 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Cultural Influence on Non-verbal Emotion Expression 5
2.2.1 Culture of Chinese-speaking communities 5 2.2.2 Hispanic culture 10 2.2.3 Comparison of Chinese and Hispanic cultures 14
2.2 Intensifier, Emotive intensifier and Subjectivity 16
2.2.1 Chinese emotive intensifiers 20 Studies on [X + sĭ le] 21 Studies on [X + de yàomìng/yàosĭ] 23
2.2.2 Spanish emotive intensifiers 24
Chapter 3 Methodology 26
3.1 Data Collection 26
3.1.1 Data source 26
3.1.2 Data selection 27
3.2 Theoretical Background 29
3.2.1 Appraisal theory 29
3.2.2 Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 32
3.3 Intern Summary 37
Chapter 4 Data Analysis 39
4.1 Affect in MCh and MSp 39
4.1.1 Referential nature 41
4.1.2 Quality 42 Emotional state in MCh and MSp 44 Physical state in MCh 46
4.1.3 Process 52 Action in MCh and MSp 54 Facial expressoin in MCh and MSp 60 Mental activity in MCh and MSp 64
4.2 Judgment in MCh and MSp 68
4.2.1 Negative judgment in MCh and MSp 69
4.2.2 Positive judgment in MCh and MSp 73
4.3 Appreciation in MCh and MSp 75
4.3.1 Negative evaluation in MCh and MSp 77
4.3.2 Positive evaluation in MCh and MSp 83
Chapter 5 Discussion 89
5.1 Language Features Showing More Regulation of Emotional Expression 89
5.1.1 Implicit terms in referential nature & non-affect categories 90
5.1.2 Emotions hidden behind intensification and sarcasm 92
5.1.3 Avoidance of first-person pronoun 96
5.2 Language Features Showing Less Regulation of Emotional Expression ............ 98
5.2.1 Direct terms in referential nature & affect categories ................................................ 99
5.2.2 Other linguistic features 102
5.3 Meaning development 104
5.4 A comparison with Martin & Rose (2007) 107
Chapter 6 Conclusion 109
6.1 Summary of Findings 109
6.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Study 111
References 113
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