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研究生:張中興
研究生(外文):Chung-HsingChang
論文名稱:從GPS連續觀測探討台灣坡地受降雨影響之滑動行為
論文名稱(外文):Rainfall-induced slope sliding behavior in Taiwan: Constraints by continuous GPS observations
指導教授:饒瑞鈞饒瑞鈞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Juin Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:CGPS坡地變形行為大崙山順向坡
外文關鍵詞:CGPSdeep-seated gravitational slope deformationDalun dip-slope
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坡地上大規模崩塌的產生通常是一段長時間的孕育過程,在此過程中會使坡地變形且在地表上留下徵兆,產生如崩崖、側邊裂隙和趾部隆起等地形特徵,對於變形過程的瞭解可以用來分析坡地崩塌的機制,然而,這個過程卻鮮少被直接記錄下來,故本研究藉由從1994年到2019年期間之 CGPS測站,探討連續記錄測站隨時間變化的運動過程。從中央山脈上的CGPS紀錄可以發現部份的坡地在水平方向上有表現明顯的週期性運動,其週期性運動是受到乾、濕季變化所影響;另外,還有因極端降雨所導致16次明顯的坡地位移,在總降雨量322 mm到2739 mm的紀錄中造成了11.3 mm到349.3 mm不等的地表位移量,造成地表產生位移所需的降雨量會因測站所處坡地的不同而有所改變。除了使用全台CGPS測站紀錄之外,本研究於2016年4月開始在大崙山順向坡上架設CGPS連續觀測網,根據測站位移的表現可以判斷順向坡頂部的校區東南側為主要滑動塊體,並將其滑動塊體的運動模式分成兩種:長時間的緩慢變形和短時間內的快速位移。從CGPS觀測站長時間的結果表示,該滑動塊體之地表速度從12.1 mm/yr到30.2 mm/yr往南至西南方運動,且位移傾角呈現6度到66度不等,其中多數測站位移時的傾角比順向坡滑動面之10到20度陡,因此推測長期變形行為除了沿著滑動面滑動之外,還有受到塊體自身的變形行為所影響;另外,有四次降雨所導致的快速位移事件,所記錄之降雨量分別為661、365、435及384 mm,造成的總位移量為11.0 mm至68.1 mm,地表和滑動面兩者所記錄的運動過程是同步的且位移量類似,位移方向主要以西南方向為主,與坡向一致,且位移傾角在7度到28度之間,與滑動面角度10到20度相比可知,坡地受降雨所觸發而開始沿滑動面運動,這類的運動模式會受到降雨和地下水位變化所影響,降雨所導致的地下水位上升和消退會控制坡地運動的時間,短延時的降雨會使坡地滑動時間較短;反之,長延時的降雨會使坡地運動時間變長,最多可造成10-11天的連續滑動。
The aim of this research was to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution of the slope deformation and its causes through long-term observation from continuous Global Position System (CGPS). We observed seasonal slow motion and short-term fast displacement from CGPS sites on the slope in the Central Range of Taiwan. The direction of seasonal slow motion can be distinguished from the dry and wet season, where the direction of wet season is consistent with the slope direction. Short-term fast displacement is mainly triggered by extreme rainfall, with the displacement recorded by CGPS is up to 349 mm. To better understand the slope movement, we established a CGPS network on a deep-seated gravitational slope in northern Taiwan. The targeted slope with the Huafan University campus built on top of it, is a translational deep-seated gravitational slope with a dip-slope of about 10°-20° toward southwest and a potential sliding surface located at 10-40 m depth, composed of early Miocene alternations of sandstone and shale in northern Taiwan. We setup 13 single-frequency and 2 dual-frequency CGPS stations on and outside the campus sliding area since April 2016. During the observation period, the slope creeps slowly with velocity of about 13 mm/year toward southwest to south, and the angle of the movement vector is steeper than the angle of the sliding surface, which suggest that the movement is not associated with sliding surface but plastic deformation of the slope mass. We found that four noticeable displacement events with the maximum 68.1 mm displacement occurred in September 2016, June 2017, October 2017 and October 2018, respectively. These fast displacements concur with four apparent rainfall events which accumulated 661、365、435 and 384 mm. The surface displacements are synchronous with slip on the sliding surface for the rainfall events, rainfall infiltration to sliding surface is main factor to trigger the slope failure. The movement pattern of fast displacement is changed by different rainfall patterns, short-term extreme rainfall cause larger displacement in short time, otherwise long-term rainfall with low intensity cause a longer displacement time.
目錄
摘要 I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT II
致謝 VII
目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1、研究動機與目的 1
1.2、前人研究 3
1.2.1、崩塌階段 3
1.2.2、CGPS於大規模崩塌監測之應用 6
1.3、研究流程 9
第二章 研究區域描述 10
2.1、區域地形 10
2.2、區域地質 11
2.3、坡地現況描述 12
第三章 研究方法與資料處理 15
3.1、全台CGPS資料 15
圖3.2、全台CGPS觀測站之點位圖。 16
3.1.1、全台CGPS資料解算流程 17
3.2、大崙山順向坡CGPS資料 18
3.2.1、大崙山順向坡CGPS架設規劃 18
3.2.2、大崙山順向坡CGPS解算流程與策略 21
3.3、CGPS座標時間序列分析 22
3.4、空間濾波技術 22
3.5、雨量資料 24
3.6、華梵大學區域地下水位資料 26
3.7、華梵大學區域SAA資料 26
第四章、研究成果 28
4.1、全台CGPS時間序列分析 28
4.1.1、坡地長期運動模式分析 28
4.1.2、快速位移事件 32
4.2、案例分析:大崙山順向坡 37
4.2.1、座標時間序列 39
4.2.2、快速位移事件 45
第五章、討論 49
5.1、全台坡地運動模式 49
5.2、大崙山順向坡之運動模式 51
5.2.1、坡地長期的變形行為 52
5.2.2、短時間內的快速位移 53
第六章、結論 55
參考文獻 56
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