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研究生:賣撒翰
研究生(外文):Srivardhan satyarajMamidi
論文名稱:十五米翼展之翼地效應機設計研究
論文名稱(外文):PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF 15 METRE WING IN GROUND EFFECT VEHICLE
指導教授:賴維祥賴維祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Hsiang Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:翼地效應機XFLR5NACA 4412參數優化等比例縮小
外文關鍵詞:Wing-in-ground effectXFLR5NACA 4412Parametric optimization.
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自車輪發明以來,載具持續改進及發展,其主要目標為製造更先進、快速和節能之載具,達到降低營運成本同時實現環保。但相比其他運輸載具而言,水面上的運輸發展仍相對緩慢,當前的異地效應機(Wing-in-Ground Effect Vehicle)為利用翼地效應結合飛機與輪船的機種。在利用軟體X-foil仿真幾種機翼形狀後,發現NACA 4112因其高升力的性質為最適合此機種之機翼。吾人所設計之載具概念為翼展14.93 m之八人座模型,並使用軟體XFLR5進行小板法分析(Panel Method Analysis),探討如阻力、起飛速度、推力與地面高度等最佳參數。結果顯示,此機種與傳統飛機相比性能有顯著的提升,約提高了60%之升阻比。因此本研究設計並分析等比例縮小1/5倍之八人座模型版本,結果顯示其與原尺寸相當接近,另外吾人也進行了參數優化研究,於CATIA V5中對於等比縮小1/5之版本有詳細的細節設計與概念,以供未來進行實驗研究可以獲取進一步之優化數據。
Right from the invention of the retro wheel, vehicles have been under consistent improvements with the main goal of shaping more sophisticated, swift, and more energy-efficient vehicles with the reduced cost of operation and being ecofriendly. But the transport on the water surface is still relatively slow in comparison with other sorts of travel. The present “wing-in-ground effect vehicle” is a vehicle that operates utilizing the “wing-in-ground effect” phenomenon. After testing several airfoil profiles for this vehicle in X-foil it is found out that NACA 4412 is the most suitable profile for this application due to its high lift characteristics. Our proposed vehicle is conceptually designed as an eight-seater model with 14.93 m wingspan and a panel method analysis is done using XFLR5 software to study, to understand, and to calculate the parameters such as drag polar, take-off speed and force required to drive the vehicle and optimal ground height. And these results show a compelling improvement in performance characteristics with an approximately 60% increase in lift to drag ratio than a conventional airplane. Hence a scaled-down version of the eight-seat model with a 0.2x scale is designed and analyzed which showed similar results to that of a full-scale model. Subsequently, a parametric optimization study is done. A detailed design is carried out in CATIA V5 based on the conceptual design of the 0.2x scaled-down model for future purposes to carry out an experimental investigation to attain further optimization data.
Table of Contents
摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iii
Table of contents iv
List of tables vii
List of figures viii
Nomenclature xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 History 1
1.2 Phenomena of a wing-in-ground effect 2
1.3 Classification of WIGs 3
1.3.1 Classification by ground effect utilization 4
1.3.2 Classification by float configuration 5
1.3.3 Classification by altitude range 6
1.4 Motivation 7
1.5 Mission objective 9
Chapter 2 Design Considerations and Methodology 11
2.1 Design considerations 11
2.2 Conceptual design and specifications 14
2.3 Aerodynamic and stability analysis 18
2.3.1 Two dimensional flow panel method software 18
2.3.2 Three-dimensional airplane flow panel method software. 20
2.3.3 Simulation setup 21
Chapter 3 Results and Discussions 27
3.1 Airfoil batch analysis. 27
3.2 8-Seat WIG performance analysis 28
3.2.1 Aerodynamic behavior of 8-seat WIG 28
3.2.2 Performance characteristics with and without the ground effect. 32
3.2.3 Stability behavior 36
3.3 0.2x Scale down WIG performance analysis 39
3.3.1 Aerodynamic behavior of 0.2x scale WIG 39
3.3.2 Performance characteristics with and without the ground effect. 42
3.3.3 Stability behavior 46
3.4 Parametric optimization 47
3.4.1 Horizontal and vertical stabilizer 48
3.4.2 Winglet dihedral angle 50
3.4.3 Wing anhedral angle 51
3.4.4 Rudder sizing 52
3.4.5 Elevator sizing 54
Chapter 4 Detailed Design 57
4.1 CATIA V5 57
4.2 Detailed structural design of components. 57
4.2.1 Wing design 57
4.2.2 Horizontal and vertical stabilizer design 58
4.2.3 Winglet design 60
4.2.4 Fuselage design 61
4.2.5 Float sizing 62
4.2.6 Assembly 68
4.3 Electrical component design and specification 71
4.3.1 Motor selection 72
4.3.2 Battery selection 73
4.3.3 Other subsystems selection 73
4.4 Weight estimation 74
Chapter 5 Conclusions 77
5.1 Summary 77
5.2 Application fields 78
5.3 Future work 80
References 81
Appendix A 83
[1].M. R. Ahmed, T. Takasaki and Y. Kohama, “Aerodynamics of a NACA4412 airfoil in ground effect, AIAA Journal 45.1(2007):37-47.
[2].T. Benson, Downwash effect on Lift, Glenn Research Center, NASA, 2005.
[3].Canamar Leyva, Alan Leonel, Seaplane conceptual design and sizing. Dissertation, University of Glasgow, 2012
[4].Chy Wei Ho, A Power matching approach for long endurance electric airplane design, Doctoral Dissertation, National Cheng Kung University, 2019.
[5].M. Collu, M.H. Patel, F. Trarieux, “The longitudinal static stability of an aerodynamically alleviated marine vehicle, a mathematical model, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, (2010);466(2116):1055-75.
[6].M. Drela and H. Yungren, Analysis of foils and wings operating at low Reynolds numbers, Guidelines for XFLR5 v6. 03, 2011.
[7].Larry L.Erickson, Panel methods: An introduction, Report TP-2995, NASA, 1990.
[8].Snorri Gudmundsson, General aviation aircraft design: Applied Methods and Procedures, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013.
[9].M. Holloran, S. O'Meara, Wing in ground effect craft review, Defence Science and Technology Organisation Canberra (Australia); 1999 Feb 1.
[10].http://www.hassanhameed.com/?page_id=1108
[11].R.D. Irodov, “Criteria of longitudinal stability of Ekranoplan, Uchenive Zaposki TSAGI 1, (1970): 63-74.
[12].Kirill, Roždestvenskij, “Wing-in-ground effect vehicles, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 42.3 (2006): 211-283.
[13].Q. Qu, X. Jia,W. Wang, P. Liu, RK Agarwal, “Numerical study of the aerodynamics of a NACA 4412 airfoil in dynamic ground effect, Aerospace Science and Technology, (2014) 1;38:56-63
[14].K.M. Tomaszewski, Hydrodynamic design of seaplane floats, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants, Report Aero 2154 (1946).
[15].H. Wang, C.J. Teo, B.C. Khoo,C.J. Goh, “Computational aerodynamics and flight stability of wing-in-ground (WIG) craft, Procedia Engineering,(2013); 67:15-24.
[16].Yun, Liang, and Alan Bliault, “High performance marine vessels, Springer, 2012.
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