跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.48.196) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/16 12:09
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張荐豪
研究生(外文):Chien-HaoChang
論文名稱:以排隊理論為基礎之電動車充電站最佳化電力排程
論文名稱(外文):Queuing Theory-based Power Scheduling for an EV Charging Station
指導教授:楊宏澤楊宏澤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hong-Tzer Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:電動車分散式架構最佳化充放電排程排隊模型非齊性卜瓦松過程輔助服務
外文關鍵詞:Electric vehicle (EV)decentralized architectureoptimal scheduling of charging and dischargingqueuing modelnon-homogeneous Poisson processancillary service
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:347
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
由於各國採取的綠能政策,電動車將被大量加入未來的智慧電網中,公共充電站也將變得越來越普遍。然而,大量電動車的不協調充電將會嚴重影響電網穩定與安全。相反地,若能經過整合與正確管理電動車,透過車輛到電網(V2G)系統不但可以在能源市場中進行套利,還能提供電網各項的輔助服務,例如頻率調節、削峰填谷,並有助於可再生能源的整合。
本文旨於提出一應用於電動車充電站之最佳化充/放電排程策略,在有限的資源下,根據各台電動車所計算出的動態優先權,以分散式架構下進行有效的管理充電站,並參與升/降載輔助服務市場。此外,本文亦考慮排隊模型以符合現實中電動車用戶的動態特性與充電站有限的容量限制,其排隊模型將電動車的到達視為一天中不同抵達率的非齊性卜瓦松過程,而服務時間則根據電池充電行為與停留時間進行建模。在模擬結果中顯示充電站業者透過整合大量車輛參與輔助服務市場確實可從中獲利。
The adoption of renewable energy policies by various countries indicates that electric vehicles (EV) will be added to future smart grids in large numbers, and public charging stations will become increasingly common. However, the uncoordinated charging of a large number of EVs may seriously affect the stability and safety of the power grid. On the contrary, if the EVs can be integrated and properly managed, the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system will not only facilitate arbitrage in the energy market but also provide various ancillary services to the grid, such as frequency regulation and peak load balancing, and contribute to the integration of renewable energy.
This thesis aims to propose an optimal charge/discharge scheduling strategy for EVs in the charging stations. As the resources are limited, the dynamic priority of each EV is calculated and a decentralized architecture is used for the EV charging stations to ensure effective management and to participate in the ramping up and down of the ancillary services market. In addition, this thesis considers the queuing model to meet the real-time dynamic characteristics of EVs and the limited capacity of charging stations. The queuing model regards the arrival of EVs as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with different arrival rates over the day, while the service time is modeled based on battery charging behavior and parking time. The simulation results show that the charging station operator can benefit from integrating a large number of vehicles by participating in the ancillary service market.
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌 謝 IV
CONTENTS VI
LIST OF FIGURES IX
LIST OF TABLES XI
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Literature Review 2
1.3 Research Objective and Contributions 5
1.4 Organization of the Thesis 6
CHAPTER 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Overall System Architecture 7
2.3 Function of Components 9
2.3.1 Transmission and Distribution System Operator 9
2.3.2 Charging Station Operator 9
2.3.3 Electric Vehicle Charging Station 10
2.3.4 Distributed Energy Resource 10
2.4 EV Charger 10
2.5 Market Mechanism 12
2.5.1 Background 12
2.5.2 Flexible Ramping Market 13
2.5.3 Charging Fee for EV Owners 15
2.6 Battery Charging Behavior (BCB) 16
2.7 Queuing Theory 19
2.7.1 Little's Law 19
2.7.2 M/G/S/K Queuing Model 19
CHAPTER 3 THE PROPOSED METHOD AND OPTIMIZED SCHEDULING ALGORITHM 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Procedure of the Proposed Method 25
3.3 Load Forecasting 28
3.4 Dynamic Characteristic Processing 31
3.4.1 Time-to-Interval Mapping 31
3.4.2 Sliding Time Window 32
3.5 Battery Wear Cost Model 33
3.6 Description of the Problem for EVCS 37
3.6.1 Objective Function 37
3.6.2 Resource Allocation Strategy 41
3.6.3 Constraints 43
3.7 Differential Evolution Algorithm 47
CHAPTER 4 SIMULATION RESULTS 51
4.1 Introduction 51
4.2 Simulated Systems 51
4.2.1 Charging Station System Parameters 51
4.2.2 EV Parameters 52
4.2.3 Base Load and PV System 57
4.2.4 California Electricity Market 58
4.3 Simulation Results and Analysis 59
4.3.1 Comparison of Different Average Number of EV 59
4.3.2 Participation in Ancillary Service Market 65
4.3.3 Impact of Different Contract Capacities 67
4.3.4 Sensitivity Analysis of Number of Chargers 71
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 72
5.1 Conclusions 72
5.2 Future Work 73
REFERENCES 74
[1]H. Günther, M. Kannegiesser, and N. Autenrieb, “The role of electric vehicles for supply chain sustainability in the automotive industry, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 90, pp. 220-233, March 2015.
[2]E. Nanaki and C. Koroneos, “Comparative economic and environmental analysis of conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles-the case study of Greece, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 53, pp. 261-266, August 2013.
[3]E. Veldman and R. Verzijlbergh, “Distribution Grid Impacts of Smart Electric Vehicle Charging From Different Perspectives, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 333-342, September 2015.
[4]O. Sundstrom and C. Binding, “Flexible Charging Optimization for Electric Vehicles Considering Distribution Grid Constraints, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26-37, March 2012.
[5]L. Gan, U. Topcu, and S. Low, “Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 940-951, May 2013.
[6]P. Palensky and D. Dietrich, “Demand Side Management: Demand Response, Intelligent Energy Systems, and Smart Loads, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 381-388, Aug. 2011.
[7]C. Guille and G. Gross, “A conceptual framework for the vehicle-to grid (V2G) implementation, Energy Policy, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 4379-4390, Jun. 2009.
[8]C. Lin, C. Yao, and R. Huang, “Mitigating voltage problem in distribution system with distributed solar generation using electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1475–1484, Oct. 2015.
[9]A. S. Masoum, S. Deilami, A. Abu-Siada, and M. A. S. Masoum, “Fuzzy approach for online coordination of plug-in electric vehicle charging in smart grid, IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1112–1121, Jul. 2015.
[10]Y. O. Assolami and W. G. Morsi, “Impact of second-generation plug-in battery electric vehicles on the aging of distribution transformers considering TOU prices, IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1606–1614, Oct. 2015.
[11]O. Hafez and K. Bhattacharya, “Queuing Analysis Based PEV Load Modeling Considering Battery Charging Behavior and Their Impact on Distribution System Operation, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 261-273, Jan. 2018.
[12]O. Hafez and K. Bhattacharya, “Integrating EV Charging Stations as Smart Loads for Demand Response Provisions in Distribution Systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1096-1106, March 2018.
[13]F. Varshosaz, M. Moazzami, B. Fani, and P. Siano, “Day-Ahead Capacity Estimation and Power Management of a Charging Station Based on Queuing Theory, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5561-5574, Oct. 2019.
[14]A. Y. S. Lam, K. Leung, and V. O. K. Li, “Capacity Estimation for Vehicle-to-Grid Frequency Regulation Services With Smart Charging Mechanism, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 156-166, Jan. 2016.
[15]Q. Yang, S. Sun, S. Deng, Q. Zhao, and M. Zhou, “Optimal Sizing of PEV Fast Charging Stations With Markovian Demand Characterization, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 4457-4466, July 2019.
[16]A. Rabiee, A. Ghiasian, and M. A. Chermahini, “Long term profit maximization strategy for charging scheduling of electric vehicle charging station, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 12, no. 18, pp. 4134-4141, 16 10 2018.
[17]S. Wang, S. Bi, Y. A. Zhang, and J. Huang, “Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Profit Maximization: Admission, Pricing, and Online Scheduling, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1722-1731, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1109/TSTE.2018.2810274.
[18]P. Fan, B. Sainbayar and S. Ren, “Operation Analysis of Fast Charging Stations With Energy Demand Control of Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1819-1826, July 2015.
[19]K. Jun-Mo, L. Jeong, E. Tea-Ho, B. Ki-Hoon, S. Min-Ho, and W. Chung-Yuen, “Design and Control Method of 25kW High Efficient EV Fast Charger, 2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Jeju, Oct. 2018, pp. 1-5.
[20]J. Channegowda, V. K. Pathipati, and S. S. Williamson, “Comprehensive review and comparison of DC fast charging converter topologies: Improving electric vehicle plug-to-wheels efficiency, 2015 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Buzios, 2015, pp. 263-268.
[21]D. Wu, C. Jin, P. Balducci, and M. Kintner-Meyer, “An energy storage assessment: Using optimal control strategies to capture multiple services, Proc. IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meeting, Denver, CO, USA, 2015, pp. 1–5.
[22]B. Xu, A. Oudalov, A. Ulbig, G. Andersson, and D. S. Kirschen, “Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation for Cell Life Assessment, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1131-1140, March 2018.
[23]C. Zhou, K. Qian, M. Allan, and W. Zhou, “Modeling of the Cost of EV Battery Wear Due to V2G Application in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1041-1050, Dec. 2011.
[24]S. Han, H. Aki, and S. Han, “A practical battery wear model for electric vehicle charging applications, 2013 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Vancouver, BC, 2013, pp. 1-5.
[25]J. D. Bishop, C. J. Axon, D. Bonilla, M. Tran, D. Banister, and M. D. McCulloch, “Evaluating the Impact of V2G Services on the Degradation of Batteries in PHEV and EV, Applied energy, vol. 111, pp. 206–218, 2013.
[26]M. A. Ortega-Vazquez, “Optimal scheduling of electric vehicle charging and vehicle-to-grid services at household level including battery degradation and price uncertainty, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1007-1016, June 2014.
[27]H. Farzin, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, and M. Moeini-Aghtaie, “A Practical Scheme to Involve Degradation Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Vehicle-to-Grid Applications, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1730-1738, Oct. 2016
[28]Y. Zheng and L. Jian, “Smart charging algorithm of electric vehicles considering dynamic charging priority, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA), Ningbo, 2016, pp. 555-560, doi: 10.1109/ICInfA.2016.7831884.
[29]I. K. Aswantara, K.S. Ko, and D. K. Sung, “A Centralized EV Charging Scheme Based on User Satisfaction Fairness and Cost, 2013 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), Bangalore, India, pp. 1-4, Jan. 2014.
[30]Z. Ma, D. S. Callaway, and I. A. Hiskens, “Decentralized Charging Control of Large Population of Plug-in Electric Vehicles, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 67-78, Jan. 2013.
[31]Y. Cao, S. Tang, C. Li, P. Zhang, Y. Tan, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “An Optimized EV Charging Model Considering TOU Price and SOC Curve, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 388-393, March 2012.
[32]E. L. Karfopoulos and N. D. Hatziargyriou, “A Multi-Agent System for Controlled Charging of a Large Population of Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 1196-1204, May 2013.
[33]G. Wang, H. Li, H. Wang, X. Zhang, and F. Zhang, “A Decentralized Power Allocation Strategy for the EV Charging Network, 2018 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia), Singapore, 2018, pp. 1305-1310.
[34]“Costs Associated With Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, New West Technologies, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, Nov. 2015.[Online]. Available: https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/evse_cost_report_2015.pdf.
[35]M. Yilmaz and P. T. Krein, “Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels, and Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2151-2169, May 2013.
[36]O. Turksoy, U. Yilmaz, and A. Teke, “Overview of battery charger topologies in plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Clean Energy (ICCE-2018), Famagusta, Cyprus. 2018. p. 9-11.
[37]California ISO, Daily Renewables Watch, 9 Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://content.caiso.com/green/renewrpt/20170409_DailyRenewablesWatch.pdf.
[38]California ISO, Flexible Resources to Help Renewables-Fast Facts, 11 Nov. 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.caiso.com/Documents/Flexibleresourceshelprenewables_FastFacts.pdf.
[39]California ISO, Flexible Ramping Product Revised Draft Technical Appendix, 11 Nov. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.caiso.com/Documents/TechnicalAppendix-FlexibleRampingProduct.pdf.
[40]B. Berman, “The Real Price of EV Public Charging, Apr. 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.plugincars.com/guide-to-public-charging-costs.html
[41]Blink Charge, “EV charging fees in America, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.blinkcharging.com/ev-charging-fee.
[42]J. D. Little, “Little’s Law as Viewed on Its 50th Anniversary, [Online]. Available: https://people.cs.umass.edu/~emery/classes/cmpsci691st/readings/OS/Littles-Law-50-Years-Later.pdf.
[43]H. C. Tijms, “A First Course in Stochastic Models, Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2003.
[44]T. Kimura, “A transform-free approximation for the finite capacity M/G/s queue, Operations Research, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 984988, Nov./Dec. 1996.
[45]T. Kimura, “Approximations for multi-server queues: System interpolations, Queueing Systems, vol. 17, nos. 34, pp. 347382, Sep. 1994.
[46]S. Hochreiter and J. Schmidhuber, “Long short-term memory, Neural computation, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1735– 1780, 1997.
[47]“Understanding LSTM Networks, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://colah.github.io/posts/2015-08-Understanding-LSTMs/.
[48]Y. He, B. Venkatesh, and L. Guan, “Optimal Scheduling for Charging and Discharging of Electric Vehicles, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1095-1105, Sep. 2012.
[49]S. B. Peterson, J. Apt, and J. Whitacre, “Lithium-ion battery cell degradation resulting from realistic vehicle and vehicle-to-grid utilization, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, pp. 2385–2392, 2010.
[50]C. S. Park, “Fundamentals of Engineering Economics, New jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
[51]J. Smart and S. Schey, “Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in the EV Project, Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress 2012, Apr. 2012.
[52]The 2011 Transportation Tomorrow Survey. [Online]. Available: http://www.dmg.utoronto.ca/reports/ttsreports.html.
[53]Y. Zhang, “Solar Power Data for Integration Studies, [Online]. Available: https://www.nrel.gov/grid/solar-power-data.html.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top