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研究生:林世倫
研究生(外文):Shih-LunLin
論文名稱:汽油車輛引擎尾氣微粒特徵研究
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Particulate Matters in Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust
指導教授:蔡俊鴻蔡俊鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jiun-Horng Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:汽油車引擎尾氣微粒排放係數微粒成份
外文關鍵詞:Gasoline vehicle emissionParticulate mattersEmission factorsPM composition
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本研究探討使用中汽油引擎機動車輛排放微粒與氣態污染物(CO、HC與NOx) 特徵,測試四行程機車(四部;適用不同期別排放標準)與汽車(三部)在怠速與定轉速條件之引擎排放尾氣污染;以EA、IC與ICP-OES分析微粒之化學組成(包括:EC、OC、水溶性離子、金屬元素),建構本土化汽油車輛引擎廢氣微粒指紋資料。
研究結果顯示:機車引擎廢氣微粒濃度在0.070~1.070 mg/Nm^3間,適用二期放標準機車排放濃度達2.5 mg/Nm^3;汽車引擎廢氣微粒濃度在0.007~0.086 mg/Nm^3間。測試車微粒濃度重複實驗誤差值CoV皆在30%以下。機車引擎排放微粒皆高於汽車,在怠速與定轉速狀態,機車平均排放微粒濃度分別為汽車濃度之6倍與16倍。適用二期標準機車於定轉速狀態之平均排放微粒濃度約為五期與六期機車測試值之3~6倍。汽油引擎在怠速狀態之排放微粒濃度最低,在定轉速狀態之微粒濃度呈現隨轉速升高而降低趨勢。各測試車排放濃度則有明顯差距,顯示在相同操作條件,不同引擎型式、排放控制設備、保養狀況皆為可能造成排放微粒濃度差異的主要原因。
推估機車與汽車於怠速型態之微粒排放係數為4.6921±1.8772 與0.4742±0.3154 mg/kg-fuel;定轉速(行駛期間)排放係數分別為0.4100±0.4202與0.1076±0.0769 mg/km。 研究觀察分析空燃比與尾氣微粒濃度相關性顯示,當λ≥1時,引擎尾氣微粒濃度快速降低。機車於定轉速狀態,引擎尾氣微粒濃度與HC及CO濃度具正相關,兩者相關係數皆〉0.95,p-value〈0.01,顯示機車尾氣出現高濃度CO或HC,亦將伴隨排放較高濃度微粒。此外,研究結果顯示,機車引擎尾氣之微粒、HC與CO濃度皆高於汽車引擎尾氣濃度。
分析引擎廢氣微粒之碳成分、水溶性離子、金屬元素佔微粒質量百分比分別為40 ~ 74%、 0 ~ 9%與1 ~ 23%。引擎廢氣微粒主要成份為有機碳(OC),主要水溶性離子為NO3-、SO42-、NH4+與Cl-,主要金屬元素為Fe、Ca與Mg。微粒OC比例與引擎轉速相關,怠速型態之微粒碳成分以OC為主,引擎轉速提高則呈現OC佔總碳比例下降現象。
This study investigated the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the engine exhaust emitted from four-stroke motorcycles and gasoline vehicles. The emission factors of PM, CO, HC, NOX were also estimated by emission tests. Composition of PM, includes carbon component, water-soluble ions, metals, were also analyzed. Test vehicles included six motorcycles and three gasoline vehicles. Emission tests were under various engine speeds with controlled conditions. The average PM concentration for motorcycles and gasoline vehicles were 0.218~0.887 mg/Nm^3 and 0.034~0.054 mg/Nm^3, respectively. The average PM emission factor for motorcycles and gasoline vehicles was 0.410 mg/km and 0.108 mg/km, respectively. Lower concentration of PM was observed during idling mode, and the concentration would decrease as increasing engine speed. The results of test data were with confidence of CoV 〈 30%. Results of PM composition showed that organic carbon (OC) and element carbon (EC) were the major components of engine exhaust particles. The dominant compositions were carbon components (40~74%), water-soluble ions (0~9%), and metal elements (1~23%), respectively. The ratio of OC/EC was around 1.27. NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ were the major compositions of water-soluble ions group in the engine particles. Fe, Ca, and Mg were the major metal elements in engine particles. The OC ratio in particulate would be related to the engine speed.
中文摘要 I
Extended Abstract III
誌謝 IX
目錄 XI
表目錄 XIV
圖目錄 XVI
第壹章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第貳章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 臺灣地區移動源污染概況 3
2-1.1 臺灣地區機動車輛概況 3
2-1.2 國內機動車輛管制現況 4
2-2 汽油引擎 9
2-2.1 四行程與二行程循環引擎 9
2-2.2 引擎點火方式 10
2-3 移動源尾氣污染物排放特徵 17
2-3.1 移動源排放微粒形成機制與特性 17
2-3.2 移動源排放微粒粒徑 20
2-3.3 移動源排放微粒成分 20
2-3.4 機動車輛排放係數推估 22
2-4 移動源排放尾氣影響因子 26
2-4.1 引擎型式 26
2-4.2 駕駛狀態 30
2-4.3 測試程序 31
2-4.4 排放控制設備 32
第參章 研究方法 34
3-1 研究架構 34
3-2 採樣系統 36
3-2.1 微粒採樣系統 36
3-2.2 氣態污染物採樣系統 39
3-2.3 採樣規劃與方法 41
3-3 微粒分析設備與方法 56
3-3.1 微粒濃度分析設備與方法 56
3-3.2 碳成分分析設備與方法 57
3-3.3 水溶性離子分析設備與方法 58
3-3.4 金屬元素分析設備與方法 60
3-4 品保品管 62
3-4.1 採樣方法品保品管 62
3-4.2 分析方品保品管 63
3-5 排放係數解析方法 68
3-5.1 氣態污染物排放濃度與油耗計算 68
3-5.2 氣態污染物與微粒排放係數 72
第肆章 結果與討論 76
4-1 車輛尾氣中微粒濃度特徵 76
4-1.1 引擎轉速對微粒質量濃度影響 76
4-1.2 車輛特性與微粒質量濃度關係 77
4-1.3 空燃比與微粒質量濃度關係 79
4-1.4 小結 80
4-2 車輛尾氣中微粒與氣態污染物濃度關係 87
4-2.1 車輛排放氣態污染物濃度特徵 87
4-2.2 尾氣中微粒與氣態污染物關係 90
4-2.3 微粒與氣態污染物排放係數推估 91
4-2.4 小結 95
4-3 車輛尾氣中微粒化學組成 110
4-3.1 微粒化學組成分析 110
4-3.2 引擎轉速對微粒化學組成影響 111
4-3.3 小結 114
4-4 汽車與機車排放污染物差異比較 128
4-4.1 汽車與機車排放微粒與氣態污染物濃度差異比較 128
4-4.2 汽車與機車微粒與氣態污染物排放係數比較 129
4-4.3 汽車與機車排放微粒化學組成差異比較 129
4-4.4 小結 130
第伍章 結論與建議 136
5-1 結論 136
5-2 建議 138
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