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研究生:林偉傑
研究生(外文):Lin, Wei-Jie
論文名稱:探究英語學習者透過臉書社群準備托福考試之參與經驗、虛擬社群意識與感受
論文名稱(外文):Traversing English Learners’ Participation, Sense of Virtual Community, and Perceptions of Preparing for the TOEFL Examination via a Facebook Community
指導教授:張靜芬張靜芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Ching-Fen
口試委員:招靜琪楊芳盈張靜芬
口試委員(外文):Chao, Chin-ChiYang, Fang-YingChang, Ching-Fen
口試日期:2020-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:英語教學研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:社群網站臉書線上語言學習社群虛擬社群意識托福
外文關鍵詞:social networking sites (SNSs)Facebookonline language learning communitysense of virtual community (SOVC)TOEFL
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近幾年來,隨著社群網站的發展與廣泛應用,人們亦逐漸因其而改變和他人溝通、互動及合作的方式。其中作為被廣泛使用之社群網站之一的臉書,亦多被應用於興趣與教學一途。然而,儘管許多研究已探究臉書的不同議題,關於結合臉書作為語言學習者之平台與探究線上語言學習社群中之虛擬社群意識之研究仍有待進一步探索。
本研究旨在探索與敘寫以英語為外語之學習者其透過一興趣導向之臉書語言學習社群準備托福考試之參與經驗、虛擬社群意識與感受。本研究採用個案研究法並融合量化與質性之研究方法,招募共九名受試者參與為期兩個月之研究,受試者皆加入一臉書社團並被分為三個小組。過程中每組皆須輪流發文以供小組成員討論與交流分享,文章內容為其共同合作討論托福模擬試題之成果。研究之資料來源主要收集自臉書貼文、小組群聊之紀錄、三次訪談、兩種問卷及線上觀察日誌。資料分析方面,則包含三部分,其一為計算和分析受試者之線上參與頻率與條目紀錄;其二為運用描述統計分析線上問卷之虛擬社群意識量表之得分;最後,則為根據研究之論題加以分析受試者之訪談資料與線上觀察之紀錄。
根據研究結果顯示,儘管臉書社群之成員其參與並不積極,但半數成員仍有高虛擬社群意識,此結果代表參與不積極並不一定便導致虛擬社群意識低落,影響與形成虛擬社群意識之因素主要和Blanchard (2007)其虛擬社群意識量表中之支持、友誼、需求強化等向度相關,其他因素如互助合作與追求共好則為此研究新發現之因素。除此之外,此研究亦發現成員對於在臉書社群中準備托福考試抱持著不同觀感。由於社群成員彼此共同貢獻與分享、臉書之實用功能,使得其中半數成員樂於於此社群中準備托福考試;相對地,其他成員則希望能於實體面對面的環境中準備托福考試,主因為其舒適性、符合成本效益、可及性與強制性。
此研究結果亦含有多項教學啟示,並可用於興趣導向、課堂外之線上學習社群。此外,本研究亦提出一整合之架構以供如本研究般以興趣導向為主軸之線上學習社群加以分析虛擬社群意識。
With the development and widespread applications of social networking sites (SNSs) in the past decade, people have gradually altered their ways of communicating, interacting, and collaborating with others via the SNSs. As one of the most popular SNSs, Facebook has been widely implemented for interests and educational purposes. Nevertheless, although previous researchers have explored and investigated a variety of issues related to Facebook, its implementation as a medium for language learners along with the exploration of sense of virtual community (SOVC) in online language learning communities remains unexplored.
This study aimed to explore and delineate a cohort of EFL learners’ participation, SOVC, and perceptions of preparing for the TOEFL examination in an interest-based Facebook language learning community. Adopting a case study methodology mixed with quantitative and qualitative methods, this two-month study recruited nine participants in total and they were added into a Facebook group and divided into three small groups. Every group was required to post their collaborative work related to the TOEFL practice tests for group discussion and ideas sharing in rotation. The data were collected from the Facebook posts, Messenger groups’ logs, three semi-structured interviews, two online questionnaires, and online observations. The data analysis comprised three parts. First, the frequencies and entries of the participants’ online participation were calculated and analyzed. Second, their scores/marks from the online questionnaire of the sense of virtual community measure were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Finally, their interview data and online observations’ field notes were analyzed based on the emerging themes.
The findings of the study showed that although the members did not participate actively in the Facebook community, half of them fostered high sense of virtual community. The results implied that inactive participation did not necessarily lead to low sense of virtual community. Factors influencing and forming the members’ sense of virtual community were primarily associated with certain dimensions including support, friendship, and reinforcement of needs originating from Blanchard’s (2007) sense of virtual community measure. Other factors including mutual collaboration and pursuit of the common good were newly discovered factors in this study. The results of the study also unveiled that the participants held diverse perceptions of preparing for the TOEFL exam via the Facebook community. Half of them expressed positive experiences in the community due to the community members’ mutual contribution and sharing plus Facebook’s affordances. Conversely, half of them desired to participate in a face-to-face environment because of its features including coziness, cost-effectiveness, accessibility, and enforcement.
The results of the study proposed various pedagogical implications for managing interest-based and out-of-class online language learning communities. Furthermore, the study also proposed a synthesized framework for interest-based online learning communities as the one in this study to analyze sense of virtual community.
中文摘要...i
ABSTRACT...iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...v
TABLE OF CONTENTS...vi
LIST OF TABLES...ix
LIST OF FIGURES...ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION...1
Background of the Study...1
Purpose of the Study...3
Research Questions...4

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW...5
Social Networking Sites...5
Facebook...7
Facebook and Learning Communities...8
Facebook in Language Learning...9
Sense of Virtual Community...13
Origin of Sense of Virtual Community...13
Development of Sense of Virtual Community’s Research...14
Formation of Sense of Virtual Community...18
Sense of Virtual Community in Education and Language Learning...21

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY...23
Case Study Methodology...23
Participants...24
Study Setting...25
Facebook Community...25
Instruments...29
Tasks...30
Role of the Researcher...31
Time Frame of the Study...32
Data Collection...34
Facebook Posts...34
Messenger Logs...37
Interviews...37
Online Questionnaires...38
Online Observations...41
Data Collection Procedure...41
Data Analysis...43
Analysis of the Facebook Posts...44
Analysis of the Messenger Logs...44
Analysis of the Semi-Structured Interviews...48
Analysis of the Online Demographic Questionnaire...48
Analysis of the Sense of Virtual Community Measure...48
Analysis of the Online Observations’ Field Notes...49
Data Analysis Procedure...50
Trustworthiness...50
Originality/Value...51

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS...52
EFL Learners’ Participation in a TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Community...52
Participation in the TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Group...52
Attributes of Participation in the TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Group...59
Participation in the TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Messenger Groups...61
Attributes of Groups’ Participation in the TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Messenger Groups...67
EFL Learners’ Sense of Virtual Community in a TOEFL Preparation-Oriented Facebook Community...81
EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Participating in the Facebook Community for the TOEFL Preparation...95
Preference for Participating in the Facebook Community...95
Preference for Participating in a Face-to-Face Environment...98

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION...102
Discussion...102
Redefinition of Online Participation in a Facebook Group...102
Limitations of an Online Language Learning Community...105
Supplements to Factors Influencing Sense of Virtual Community...107
Prearrangements of an Online Language Learning Community...109
Conclusion...112
Summary of the Study...112
Pedagogical Implications...114
Limitations of the Study...116
Suggestions for Future Research...117

REFERENCES...119

APPENDIXES...127
Appendix A Chinese Version of Consent Form...127
Appendix B English Version of Consent Form...128
Appendix C Online Questionnaire I...129
Appendix D Interview Questions for Interview I...133
Appendix E Interview Questions for Interview II...134
Appendix F Online Questionnaire II...135
Appendix G Interview Questions for Interview III...139
Appendix H Excerpts of Online Messenger Logs...140
Appendix I Integral Participation via Facebook Messenger...142
Appendix J Group A’s Participation in their Messenger Group...143
Appendix K Group B’s Participation in their Messenger Group...144
Appendix L Group C’s Participation in their Messenger Group...145
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