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研究生:余智強
研究生(外文):Yu, Chih-Chiang
論文名稱:失效模式與效應分析應用於輪胎胎面製程之勞災預防與改善-以某輪胎工廠為例
論文名稱(外文):The Use of FMEA for Injury Prevention and Improvement of Tire Tread Process - Taking Tire Factory as an Example
指導教授:金大仁金大仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kam, Tai-Yan
口試委員:金大仁楊秉祥鍾添淦
口試委員(外文):Kam, Tai-YanYang, Bing-ShiangChung, Tien-Kan
口試日期:2019-12-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工學院產業安全與防災學程
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境防災學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:胎面壓出機風險評估失效模式與效應分析指差呼喚上鎖掛牌
外文關鍵詞:Tread extrusion machineRisk AssessmentFailure Mode and Effects AnalysisPoint and CallLockout and Tagout
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:240
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
橡膠產品製造產業,為高度勞力輸出的傳統產業,所製造的產品係現代生活必需用品。然而,其生產環境係充滿粉塵、高溫、噪音、有機溶劑之場所,製程上多使用大型生產設備,具有一定程度之危險。從近9年勞動部職業安全衛生署的職災統計資料觀之,橡膠產品製造業的職災件數居高不下,代表在職業安全衛生管理上仍有潛在風險未被發現,依據9年平均件數為166件,全臺橡膠產品製造業共計1138家推估,每年每7家工廠中就會發生1件職災,職災發生率14%,且該職災多為重大災害,唯有控管潛在風險高的危害因子,藉由改善措施降低發生頻度與風險等級,方可減少災害發生件數。
本研究以胎面壓出製程為對象,收集歷年災害件數、發生趨勢、災害類型來進行探討,並運用風險評估和失效模式與效應分析等方法(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis),在胎面壓出機六大作業區域之中,實施各區作業特性之危害鑑別,再分析各項作業失效模式與原因、評估風險等級,針對不可接受風險之項目(風險等級3以上),高達93%失效原因歸納於人員不安全行為,在機台既有安全硬體裝置外,對此擬定安全制度、人員安全意識提升之改善措施,使其發生頻度降低,進而下降風險等級,研究結果顯示,15件風險等級3以上之作業項目經改善對策實施後,可降低捲夾、切傷、碰撞、壓傷、墜落等勞災事故發生頻度,並讓7件風險等級4之作業項目達成下降風險等級至3之研究目的,亦達到減少勞災事故發生件數,自2018年度起至2019年度,改善對策實施下,可有效控管危害因子,災害事故為0件,本研究改善後之工程災害件數與2013年度~2017年度相較,呈明顯下降趨勢,往後持續控管危害風險,維持零災害之工作職場。
本研究提供胎面壓出機作業危害因子分析、風險評估與改善措施,主要針對因不安全行為而造成災害事故,降低其失效原因發生頻度,改善5要項: (1)降低人車碰撞風險,廠內指差呼喚制度導入與監督維持、(2)降低堆高機翻覆壓傷風險,並優於法規要求,安裝安全帶與連鎖裝置、(3)降低作業災害風險,導入危險預知訓練與人員能力評價、(4)降低墜落、捲夾與壓傷災害風險,安裝災害模擬訓練機台並定期進行教育訓練、(5)降低機台錯誤啟動造成災害之風險,導入停機上鎖掛牌制度。上述改善對策亦可於未來可擴展到橡膠產品製造業其他機台設備,供參考與應用。
The rubber product manufacturing is a labor-intensive and traditional industry, and the products are essential for daily life. However, the site is usually full of dust, noise, organic solvents with high temperature. The comprehensive use of large-scale producing equipment on the process causes certain risks. Pursuant to the statistics of occupational hazards of the Occupational Safety and Health Department of the Ministry of Labor in the past eight years(“Statistics”), the number of casualties in this Industry remains high, that implies there are still potential risks in occupational safety and health management that have not been discovered. In fact, said Statistics shows there are 166 cases per annum. When contrasting with total 1,138 rubber products manufacture in Taiwan. We can conclude that 1 job injury will occur in every 7 factories in every year which is equivalent to 14% incidence of job injury, and most of the occupational injuries are serious injuries. Thus, only by efficiently controlling the hazard factors of high potential risks and implementing improvement measures, so that to reduce the frequency and risk level become possible.

This study is based on the tread extrusion process, collects the number of injuries, trends, and types of injuries over the years, with the methodologies of risk assessment, failure mode, and effect analysis to identify hazard factors and risk levels to develop improvement measures to reduce the risk level, Among the six operating areas of the tread extrusion process, the hazard identification of the operating characteristics of each area is implemented, and the failure modes and causes of each operating are analyzed, and the risk level is evaluated. For items with unacceptable risks (risk level 3 or higher), Up to 93% of the causes of failure are attributed to personnel unsafe behaviors. In addition to the existing safety hardware devices in the machine, the establishment of safety systems and improvement measures to enhance personnel safety awareness reduce the frequency of occurrence and reduce the risk level. The results of the study shows that, after the implementation of the improvement measures, the frequency of accidents in relation to curling, cutting, collision, crushing, and falling for 15 risk above level 3 operations, can be reduced, and 7 risk level 4 operations can be reduced to risk level 3. For research purposes, it also means reduction of accidents. From 2018 to 2019, the implementation of improved countermeasures can effectively control hazard factors. The number of injury accidents is 0. Compared with 2013 to 2017, the number of engineering injuries improved in this study shows a significant downward trend. Continuously control hazard risks and maintain a zero-hazard workplace.

This study provides risk analysis, risk assessment and improvement measures for tread extrusion machine. Mainly for injury accidents caused by unsafe behaviors, and reducing the frequency of failure cause. The main improvements are as follows: (1) Reducing the risk of pedestrian-vehicle collision, introducing the Point and Call System and supervision the compliance in factories.
(2) Reducing the risk of injury due to fork lifter overturning, adopting a standard which is higher than statutory to install seat belts and interlocking devices.
(3) Reducing the risk of operation injuries, introducing risk prediction training and personnel capability evaluation.
(4) Reducing the risk of falling, clamping and crushing, installing injury simulator machine, and conducting regular education and training.
(5) Reducing the risk of injury caused by wrong start of machine, and introduce the system of Lockout and Tagout.

It is highly believed that the above improvement measures can be extended to other equipment in this Industry for reference and application in the future.
摘要 ⅰ
Abstract iv
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
一、計劃概述 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
二、研究目的 5
三、研究方法 8
3.1 研究對象與範圍 8
3.1.1 輪胎構造簡介 8
3.1.2輪胎製造流程簡介 11
3.2 風險評估技術指引 15
3.3 失效模式與效應分析 17
四、 結果與討論 20
4.1 FMEA分析結果 20
4.2風險控制 27
4.3改善對策 30
4.3.1 指差呼喚制度 31
4.3.2堆高機安全改善 32
4.3.3 危險預知(KYT)訓練 34
4.3.4安全體感訓練 35
4.3.5LOTO制度 37
4.4改善對策後風險評估 41
五、 結論與建議 45
5.1 結論 45
5.2 建議 48
參考文獻 50
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