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研究生:劉家豪
研究生(外文):Chia-Hao Liu
論文名稱:橫向等向性合成岩體之力學行為及其變異性
指導教授:田永銘田永銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yong-Ming Tien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:橫向等向性裂隙岩體合成岩體破壞模態變異性PFC3D
外文關鍵詞:transversely isotropicfractured rocksynthetic rock massfailure modevariationPFC3D
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本文以PFC3D(Particle Flow Code3D)結合FracMan模擬不同裂隙傾角之橫向等向性合成岩體,在單軸或三軸壓縮試驗下之破壞模態(failure modes)、單壓強度(UCS)、楊氏模數(E50)與變異性(CV),並與過往理論進行驗證。同時探討裂隙直徑(D)、費雪常數(κ)、裂隙程度(P32)等裂隙參數以及取樣體積變化對裂隙岩體力學行為及其變異性的影響,且整合一異向性指標,可用來表示為橫向等向性岩體之異向性程度。
本文研究結果顯示為:(1)橫向等向性岩體之力學性質與傾角呈U型關係;然而,力學性質之變異係數與傾角呈一倒U型關係。(2)此外,裂縫發展受裂隙傾角之影響,在單壓試驗下之破壞模態共可歸納為四類,分別為穿層破壞模態(Sliding or split across inherent fracture mode)、滑動破壞模態(Sliding along inherent fracture mode)、劈裂破壞模態(Split along inherent fracture mode)、混合模態(Mixed mode)。(3)橫向等向性岩體之單壓強度及楊氏模數之變異係數與取樣體積開根號成反比,符合統計學中央極限定理(central limit theorem)。與等向性結果相同(田永銘等,2017)。(4)三軸試驗中當圍壓越大,其力學性質與變異性之異向性皆越低,呈負相關。並與Tien and Kuo ( 2001 )的破壞準則進行比較,其結果高度吻合。(5)D、κ、P32等裂隙參數,對力學行為及其變異性影響甚鉅,隨著D、κ、P32提升,其力學性質與變異性的異向性越顯著,呈正相關。同時本文提出一量化之異向性指標「異向性比,AR(anisotropic ratio)」,並建立AR與D、κ、P32之關係。
This paper employs 3-D Particle Flow Code and FracMan to simulate synthetic transversely isotropic rocks masses with different dip angles (β) and focuses on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Young’s modulus (E50), failure modes, and coefficient of variance (CV) under unconfined compression test and triaxial test. And we verify our simulation results to criterion. This paper also presents the effect of sampling volume and fracture parameters such as fracture intensity (P32), fracture diameter (D), and Fisher constant (κ) on the mechanical behavior and variation of fractured rock. Furthermore, a new anisotropic index for the anisotropic degree of transversely isotropic rocks has been developed and presented.
Based on the numerical simulation results:(1) The relationship between the mechanical properties of transversely isotropic rocks and β presents the U-typed relation. However, the relationship between CVs of the mechanical properties and β presents the inverted U-typed relation. (2) In addition, the crack development is affected by dip angle of fracture, and we generalize four failure modes under unconfined compression test. The failure modes are sliding or split across inherent fracture mode, sliding along inherent fracture mode, split along inherent fracture mode, and mixed mode, respectively. (3) The coefficient of variations (CV) of uniaxial compressive strength and Young’s modulus are inversely proportional to the squared root of sampling volume, which conforms the central limit theorem. The result is the same as isotropic. (Tien et al., 2017) (4) The anisotropic of mechanical properties and variations decrease with increase of confining pressures under triaxial test, which shows the negeative relation. The simulation results almost agree with results of Tien and Kuo Criterion (2001). (5) The fracture diameter (D), fracture intensity (P32), and the Fisher constant (κ) all have significant effects on the mechanical behavior and variation. The anisotropic of mechanical properties and variations increase with the increase of D, κ, and P32, which shows the positive relation. This paper also proposed a anisotropic ratio (AR) and established the relationship among AR, D, κ, and P32 of transversely isotropic rocks.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XVIII
1 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與方式 2
1.3 論文內容及架構 3
2 第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 合成岩體 4
2.1.1 離散裂隙網路(DFN) 5
2.1.2 鍵結顆粒模型(BPM) 5
2.1.3 平滑節理模型(SJM) 7
2.2 裂隙含量量測及定義 9
2.3 橫向等向性岩石之定義及材料組成律 12
2.4 橫向等向性岩石之彈性常數求取方法 14
2.5 Jaeger(1960)破壞準則 17
2.6 Tien and Kuo(2001)破壞準則 21
3 第三章、研究方法 27
3.1 研究流程 27
3.2 建模步驟 28
3.2.1 離散裂隙網路模型建立 28
3.2.2 合成岩體模型建立 29
3.3 完整岩體模型 33
4 第四章、橫向等向性岩體力學行為及其變異性 36
4.1 單軸壓縮試驗下力學性質及其變異性 36
4.2 單軸壓縮試驗下之破壞模態 39
4.3 橫向等向性彈性常數之求取 45
4.4 取樣體積之影響 47
4.5 三軸壓縮試驗下力學性質及其變異性 52
5 第五章、裂隙參數對力學行為及其變異性影響之探討 59
5.1 裂隙直徑之影響 59
5.1.1 裂隙直徑與破壞模態之關係 60
5.1.2 裂隙直徑與力學性質之關係 73
5.1.3 裂隙直徑與變異性之關係 79
5.2 費雪常數之影響 83
5.2.1 費雪常數與破壞模態之關係 84
5.2.2 費雪常數與力學性質之關係 96
5.2.3 費雪常數與變異性之關係 102
5.3 裂隙程度之影響 106
5.3.1 裂隙程度與破壞模態之關係 107
5.3.2 裂隙程度與力學性質之關係 119
5.3.3 裂隙程度與變異性之關係 125
5.4 異向性程度與裂隙參數關係之整合探討 129
6 第六章、結論與建議 141
6.1 結論 141
6.2 建議 145
參考文獻 146
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