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研究生:葉婉婷
研究生(外文):Wan-Ting Ye
論文名稱:委屈真能求全?主管行為與工作績效關係之研究
指導教授:李憶萱李憶萱引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:表面從眾主管偏愛主管不友善工作退縮工作投入心理契約違反結構方程模式
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本研究試圖回答:「主管偏愛和不友善行為如何影響員工行為?」本研究分為三個部分進行探討,第一部分為探討「主管偏愛」和「主管不友善」行為是否會影響員工產生「表面從眾」;第二部分為探討「表面從眾」是否會影響「工作退縮」和「工作投入」;第三部分為探討心理契約違反對於主管偏愛和不友善行為、表面從眾和工作退縮與投入之調節效果。
本研究採用結構方程模式進行分析,以目前有工作之員工作為研究對象(截至2020 年 4 月底),問卷共發放 400 份,有效問卷共 373 份。研究結果顯示第一、二部分皆有顯著影響,然而關於第三部分,「心理契約違反」對於「主管偏愛」與「表面從眾」具有調節效果;「心理契約違反」對於「主管不友善」與「表面從眾」則沒有影響;「心理契約違反」對於「表面從眾」與「工作退縮」具有調節效果;「心理契約違
反」對於「表面從眾」與「工作投入」也具有調節效果。
本研究貢獻分為三個部分。首先,本研究利用社會交換理論、社會認同理論、社會分類理論以及領導者成員交換理論並將主管行為分成正負向去討論,整合並擴展了關於傳統領導理論之研究,為領導者與不真誠行為提供驗證。第二,根據社會影響理論與資源保存理論,透過探討主管行為是否會讓員工產生表面從眾,從而對員工工作態度與行為造成影響,以拓展研究領導者影響員工行為之新方向。第三,本研究認為過去關於表面從眾之調節變數是從片面角度去研究,然而心理契約違反是透過組織制度層面去探討,填補了影響員工表面從眾行為的缺口。
This study attempts to investigate how do supervisor favoritism and incivility behavior affect employee behavior. The study was divided into three parts. First of all, it explored how do “favoritism” and “supervisor incivility” behaviors affect employees’ “facade of conformity”behavior. The second part of this study explored whether “facade of conformity” would have an impact on “work withdrawal” and “work engagement”. The third part of this study investigated the moderating effect of psychological contract breach on favoritism and supervisor incivility behaviors, facade of conformity, work withdrawal, and work engagement.
Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was conducted to analyze the research model. A total of 400 surveys were distributed, and 373 valid samples were retrieved. The research subjects were employees who were currently employed (as of the end of April 2020). According to the result of this research, “favoritism” has positive effect on “facade of conformity”, and “supervisor incivility” also has positive effect on “facade of conformity”. Similarly, “facade of conformity” has positive effect on “work withdrawal”, and “facade of conformity” has negative effect on “work engagement”. Whereas, in the third part, the research found that “psychological contract breach” has moderating effect on “favoritism” and “facade of conformity”, while “psychological contract breach” has no moderating effect on “supervisor incivility” and “facade
of conformity”. Moreover, “psychological contract breach” has moderating effect on “facade of conformity” and “work withdrawal”. Similarly, “psychological contract breach” has
moderating effect on “facade of conformity” and “work engagement” as well.
The contribution of this research can be divided into three aspects. First, this study applied social exchange theory, social identity theory, social categorization theory, and leader-member exchange theory to categorize supervisory behaviors into positive and negative dimensions, integrating and expanding previous research on traditional leadership theory to provide verification for leaders and inauthenticity behaviors. Second, according to the social influence theory and resource conservation theory, discussing whether the supervisor's behavior would
cause employees creating facade of conformity, which could affect their work attitude and behavior and developed new directions of the influences of leaders' behavior toward employees’ behavior. Last, this study considered that the previous researches about moderating variables of
facade of conformity were studied from a one-sided perspective, while psychological contract breach was studied through the organizational level, filling the gap that could affect employees’ facade of conformity behavior.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝詞 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
一、緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的與架構 1
1-3 研究價值與預期貢獻 3
二、文獻探討與研究假設 5
2-1表面從眾(Facades of Conformity) 5
2-2 主管(Supervisor) 7
2-2-1 主管偏愛(Favoritism) 9
2-2-2主管不友善(Supervisor Incivility) 10
2-3工作退縮(Work Withdrawal) 12
2-4工作投入(Work Engagement) 13
2-5心理契約違反(Psychological Contract Breach) 13
三、研究方法 19
3-1 研究對象與樣本發放 19
3-2 問卷設計 19
3-3 變項衡量方式 19
3-3-1 表面從眾 19
3-3-2 主管偏愛 20
3-3-3 主管不友善 21
3-3-4 工作退縮 22
3-3-5 工作投入 23
3-3-6 心理契約違反 24
3-4 控制變數 25
3-5 分析方法 25
3-5-1 敘述性統計與相關分析 25
3-5-2 因素分析 26
3-5-3 信度分析 26
3-5-4 效度分析 26
3-5-5 共同方法變異控制 27
3-5-6 結構方程模式 27
四、資料分析與研究結果 28
4-1 敘述性統計分析 28
4-2 相關分析 29
4-3 信度分析 29
4-4 建構效度分析 31
4-4-1 收斂效度 31
4-4-2 區別效度 33
4-5 共同方法變異分析 33
4-6 結構方程模式分析 34
4-6-1 結構模式適配度 35
4-6-2 路徑係數分析 37
4-6-3 心理契約違反調節效果評估 38
五、結論與建議 40
5-1 研究結果與研究意涵 40
5-1-1主管偏愛和不友善行為如何影響員工表面從眾 40
5-1-2 表面從眾如何影響工作退縮與工作投入 41
5-1-3 心理契約違反的調節效果 42
5-1-4研究意涵 44
5-2實務管理意涵 45
5-3研究限制與後續研究建議 45
參考文獻 47
附錄一 研究問卷 69
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二、中文部分
顏志龍&鄭中平. (2019). 給倫文寫作者的統計指南:傻瓜也會跑統計. 台北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司
陳順宇. (2005). 多變量分析. 台北: 華泰.
陳寬裕&王正華. (2013). 結構方程模型分析實務:AMOS的運用. 台北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司
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