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研究生:李尚儒
研究生(外文):Shang-Ru Lee
論文名稱:比,才會有進步?以競技遊戲為例
論文名稱(外文):Compared to make progress? Take competitive games as an example
指導教授:李憶萱李憶萱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsuan Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:社會比較向上比較向下比較印象管理自我呈現自大型自戀脆弱型自戀自尊電競遊戲
外文關鍵詞:social comparisonupward comparisondownward comparisonimpression managementself-presentationgrandiose narcissismvulnerable narcissismself-esteemeSportsgames
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社會比較理論,在心理學等相關領域中是相當重要的一項理論,其闡述了人們日常進行比較行為之過程與行為背後的機制。在社會比較的領域中,過去有學者發現了競爭與社會比較的關聯性。但本研究從過去相關的文獻發現,鮮少有人在競爭情境中,針對人格或相關行為進行實際之分析。而在競爭情境下,人們社會比較的方向是否會不同?而個體在經歷社會比較過後會如何採取行為?這些都是值得去探討之研究議題。因此,本研究採用了自大型自戀人格、脆弱型自戀人格、自尊這三種與社會比較有所關聯之人格特質去進一步討論其在社會比較方向上的差異。並且本研究同時將社會比較理論結合了自我呈現策略,探討不同方向的社會比較與各式各樣之自我呈現策略構面之關聯性。另一方面,近年電競風潮興起,本研究將研究背景延伸至電競,並運用社會比較、印象管理等理論詮釋玩家之心理狀態與行為。
本研究同時採用了實驗法與一般問卷法來進行研究。在實驗法中,本研究在校園內共挑選了四個班級進行實驗,透過舉辦黑洞大作戰(Hole.io)之手遊競賽來初步了解個體在競技遊戲情境下之社會比較方向、印象管理行為。實驗法總計回收了146份有效問卷,並利用路徑分析來分析之。而一般問卷法方面,本研究則是以英雄聯盟為研究案例,調查英雄聯盟玩家平時在遊戲中的社會比較方向與自我呈現策略之採用。一般問卷法總計回收了485份有效問卷,並利用結構方程模型來分析之。
本研究主要分成兩個部分進行探討。第一個部分主要是探討自大型自戀人格、脆弱型自戀人格、自尊與社會比較之關係。根據實驗法的結果,自大型自戀人格會傾向進行向上比較;脆弱型自戀人格與向下比較呈負向關係;而自尊則是與兩種社會比較行為皆無顯著關聯。而根據一般問卷法的結果,自大型自戀人格與兩種社會比較行為皆有正向關係;脆弱型自戀人格會傾向進行向下的社會比較;而自尊則是與向上比較呈負向關係。第二個部分則是討論社會比較與自我呈現策略的關聯性。根據實驗法的結果,向下比較除了與模範無顯著關係外,其餘推託、合理化、免責、自詡、抬舉及損人利己皆有正向關係;向上比較除了與自詡、損人利己無顯著關係外,其餘推託、合理化、免責、抬舉及模範皆有正向關係。而根據一般問卷法的結果,不論是向下比較或是向上比較,皆與所有自我呈現策略(推託、合理化、免責、自我妨礙、逢迎、自詡、抬舉、損人利己、模範)呈正向關係。
本研究之研究貢獻主要分成三個部分。第一個部分,本研究探討了不同人格在競技遊戲情境中的社會比較行為傾向,填補了相關議題的缺口;第二部分,本研究將社會比較理論與印象管理行為做結合,分析不同方向的社會比較與自我呈現策略構面之關係,並進行較全面性的探討,填補了相關議題的缺口;第三部分,電競產業的發展日新月異,其影響力正逐漸擴散,且其中有相當多的議題值得去探討。因此本研究將電競情境與心理學之理論做結合並進一步實證理論架構,為此相關領域帶來貢獻。
Social comparative theory, an important theory in psychology and other related fields, explains the process of people's daily comparative behavior and the mechanism behind the behavior. In the field of social comparison, some scholars have discovered the correlation between competition and social comparison in the past. However, this study found from the relevant literature in the past that few people actually analyze personality or related behavior in a competitive situation. In a competitive situation, will the direction of social comparison be different? And how do individuals take action after experiencing social comparisons? All these are worthy research topics to be explored. Therefore, this study adopted three personality traits related to social comparisons, such as grandiose narcissistic personality, vulnerable narcissistic personality, and self-esteem, to further discuss their differences in the direction of social comparison. At the same time, this study combines social comparison theory with impression management strategies and explores the correlation between social comparison in different directions and various aspects of impression management strategies. On the other hand, with the rise of e-sports in recent years, this research extends the research background to eSports and uses social comparison theory and impression management theory to interpret players' psychological states and behaviors. In this study, both the experimental method and the general questionnaire were used.
In the experimental method, this study selected a total of four classes on the campus to conduct experiments. By holding the mobile game competition of the Hole.io to initially understand the individual's social comparison direction and impression management in the context of competitive games behavior. A total of 146 valid questionnaires were collected for the experimental method and analyzed by path analysis. In terms of the general questionnaire method, this study is based on the League of Legends as a case study to investigate the social comparison direction and impression management strategies of the League of Legends players in the game. A total of 485 valid questionnaires were collected by the general questionnaire method and analyzed by the structural equation model.
This study is divided into two parts for discussion. The first part is mainly to explore the relationship between grandiose narcissistic personality, vulnerable narcissistic personality, self-esteem, and social comparison. According to the results of the experimental method, grandiose narcissistic personality tends to make an upward comparison; a vulnerable narcissistic personality has a negative relationship with downward comparison, and self-esteem is not significantly related to both social comparison behaviors. According to the results of the general questionnaire, the grandiose narcissistic personality is significantly related to both social comparison behaviors.; the vulnerable narcissistic personality will tend to make a downward social comparison; and self-esteem has a negative relationship with an upward comparison. The second part discusses the correlation between social comparison and impression management strategies. According to the results of the experimental method, in addition to no significant relationship with exemplification, the downward comparison has a positive relationship with an excuse, justification, disclaimer, entitlement, enhancement, and blasting; in addition to no significant relationship with entitlement and blasting, the upward comparison has a positive relationship with an excuse, justification, disclaimer, enhancement, and exemplification. According to the results of the general questionnaire, whether it is a downward comparison or upward comparison, it has a positive relationship with all impression management strategies (excuse, justification, disclaimer, self-handicapping, ingratiation, entitlement, enhancement, blasting, and exemplification).
The research contribution of this research is mainly divided into three parts. In the first part, this study explores the social comparison behavior of different personalities in the context of competitive games and fills the gaps in related issue; in the second part, this research combines social comparison theory with impression management behavior to analyze the relationship between the different directions of social comparison and impression management strategy and conduct a more comprehensive discussion to fill the gaps in the related issue. In the third part, the development of the e-sports industry is changing rapidly, its influence is gradually spreading, and there are many issues worth exploring. Therefore, this research combines eSports context with psychology theory and further empirical theoretical framework, which contributes to this related field.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝辭 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 x
一、緒論 1
1-1 研究背景與目的 1
1-2 研究動機與預期貢獻 3
二、文獻探討 6
2-1 社會比較 6
2-2 印象管理 8
2-3 自戀人格 11
2-4 自尊 13
2-5 電競與遊戲產業 15
2-6 研究假設 17
2-6-1 人格與社會比較 17
2-6-2 印象管理與社會比較 19
三、研究方法 26
3-1 實驗法 26
3-1-1 研究對象與樣本發放 27
3-1-2 實驗設計 27
3-1-2-1 遊戲挑選 27
3-1-2-2 實驗流程 29
3-1-3 問卷設計與變項衡量 32
3-1-3-1 自大型自戀人 格 32
3-1-3-2 脆弱型自戀人格 33
3-1-3-3 自尊 34
3-1-3-4 向下社會比較 34
3-1-3-5 向上社會比較 35
3-1-3-6 自我呈現策略 35
3-1-3-6-1 推託 36
3-1-3-6-2 合理化 36
3-1-3-6-3 免責 37
3-1-3-6-4 自詡 37
3-1-3-6-5 抬舉 38
3-1-3-6-6 損人利己 38
3-1-3-6-7模範 39
3-2 一般問卷法 39
3-2-1 研究對象與樣本發放 40
3-2-2 問卷設計與變項衡量 40
3-2-2-1 自大型自戀人格 40
3-2-2-2 脆弱型自戀人格 41
3-2-2-3 自尊 42
3-2-2-4 向下社會比較 42
3-2-2-5 向上社會比較 43
3-2-2-6 自我呈現策略 44
3-2-2-6-1 推託 44
3-2-2-6-2 合理化 44
3-2-2-6-3 免責 45
3-2-2-6-4 自我妨礙 45
3-2-2-6-5 逢迎 46
3-2-2-6-6 自詡 47
3-2-2-6-7 抬舉 47
3-2-2-6-8 損人利己 47
3-2-2-6-9 模範 48
3-3 分析方法 48
3-3-1 敘述性統計與相關分析 49
3-3-2 因素分析 49
3-3-3 信度分析 50
3-3-4 效度分析 50
3-3-5 共同方法變異控制 50
3-3-6 實驗設計之內、外在效度 51
3-3-7 路徑分析 51
3-3-8 結構方程模型 52
四、資料分析與研究結果 53
4-1 實驗法 53
4-1-1 敘述性統計分析 53
4-1-2 變數之敘述性統計分析 54
4-1-3 相關分析 55
4-1-4 信度分析 57
4-1-5 建構效度分析 57
4-1-5-1 收斂效度 57
4-1-5-2 區別效度 60
4-1-6 共同方法變異分析 62
4-1-7 路徑分析 62
4-2 一般問卷法 67
4-2-1 敘述性統計分析 67
4-2-2 變數之敘述性統計分析 69
4-2-3 相關分析 69
4-2-4 信度分析 71
4-2-5 建構效度分析 71
4-2-5-1 收斂效度 72
4-2-5-2 區別效度 75
4-2-6 共同方法變異分析 77
4-2-7 結構方程模型 77
4-2-7-1 結構模式擬合度 77
4-2-7-2 路徑係 數分析 78
五、結論與建議
83
5-1 研究結果 83
5-1-1 實驗法 83
5-1-1-1 人格與社會比較 83
5-1-1-2印象管理與社會比較 84
5-1-2 一般問卷法 86
5-1-2-1 人格與社會比較 86
5-1-2-2印象管理與社會比較 88
5-1-3 研究發現 90
5-2 研究貢獻 93
5-3 實務建議 94
5-4 研究限制與後續研究建議 96
參考文獻 97
一、英文文獻 97
二、中文文獻 105
三、網路資料 106
附碌一、實驗法之研究問卷 107
附件二、一般問卷法之研究問卷 113
一、英文文獻
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二、中文文獻
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楊麗珠(2012). 社會比較量表之發展及與主觀幸福感結構關聯性之探討(未出版之碩士論文 ). 國立臺南大學 , 臺南市
顏志龍, 鄭中平 . (2017). 給論文寫作者 的統計指南 : 傻瓜也會跑統計 修訂版 ). 台北:五南

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王國川. (2000). 外 在效度的威脅 . 教育大辭書 取自:
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余民寧. (2000). 徑路分析 . 教育大辭書 . 取自: https://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1308317/
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陳君毅. (2020) 《英雄聯盟》下個 10年, Riot再創高峰的兩大殺手鐧:「 IP」 與 「手遊」 數位時代 取自: https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/55161/riot-games-ten years
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