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研究生:黃子豪
研究生(外文):Tzu-Hao Huang
論文名稱(外文):LOT Time-Series Observations of M31 Cepheids in BVRI Filters
指導教授:饒兆聰
指導教授(外文):Chow-Choong Ngeow
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:天文研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:天文及太空科學學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:造父變星仙女座星系距離尺度
外文關鍵詞:CepheidsM31Distance scale
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古典造父變星是用於測量到附近星系距離的標準燭光,我們計畫的目標是利用鹿林一米望遠鏡在BVRI波段的觀測的測量仙女座星系的距離。我們應用影像對減套件可以生成仙女座星系中已知長週期造父變星的光通量差曲線。通量的轉換是通過使用標準星和PSF光度法獲得。造父變星的平均星等是通過使用擬合光曲線的模板方法得出,平均星等的誤差是介於±0.05 到±0.1 星等之間。我們採用了不同的消光係數和週光關係的斜率來測量仙女座星系的距離模數。藉由使用Ngeow (2012) 中給出的週光關係斜率,我們得到的距離模數是μ0 = 24.299 ± 0.042 和24.300 ± 0.042;如果我們採用Ngeow和Kanbur (2004) 的週光關係斜率,則距離模數是μ0 = 24.445 ± 0.049 和24.446 ± 0.04,其中兩個值分別對應到兩個不同的消光係數RV = 2.7 和3.1。
Classical Cepheid variable stars are standard candles for measuring distance to nearby galaxies. The goal of our project is to measure the distance of M31 by using the Lulin One-meter Telescope observed in BVRI-band. We applied an images subtraction package to create differential flux light curves for the known long period Cepheids in M31. Flux to magnitude conversion is obtained by using standard stars together with PSF photometry.
The Cepheid mean magnitudes were derived from using a template light curve fitting approach, with typical errors on mean magnitudes is ±0.05 to ±0.1. We adopted different extinction values and slopes of the period-luminosity (P-L) relations to measure the distance modulus to M31. Our results with RV = 2.7 and 3.1 are μ0 = 24.299 ± 0.042 and 24.300 ± 0.042 from using the P-L slopes given in Ngeow (2012). If we adopted the P-L slopes from Ngeow and Kanbur (2004), then μ0 = 24.445 ± 0.049 and 24.446 ± 0.04 with the two values of RV , respectively.
摘要vii
Abstract ix
Contents xi
1 Introduction 1
2 Data 3
2.1 Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Identification of Cepheids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Data pre-processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Image Subtraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4.1 Image registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4.2 ISIS images subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 Photometry 9
3.1 PSF Photometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.1 The Phot Task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.2 The Pstselect Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.3 Computing the PSF Model with PSF Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.4 Fitting Stars With the Allstar Task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 Standard Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 Cepheid Light Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Light Curve Fitting Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.5 Cepheid Outliers Rejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6 Extinction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4 Result and Summary 19
4.1 PL-relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Bibliography 25
A Our Cepheid Light Curves Fitting with Templates 27
B Mean Magnitude of Our Cepheids 31
xii
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