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研究生:楊甯琪
研究生(外文):Ning-Chi Yang
論文名稱:臺灣人口結構、所得分配與環境不均度分析-以細懸浮微粒與臭氧為例
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Taiwan\'s Population Structure, Income Distribution and Environmental Inequality-Take PM2.5 and O3 as Examples.
指導教授:劉錦龍劉錦龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-Long Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:產業經濟研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:空氣汙染細懸浮微粒臭氧固定效果汙染不均等環境不均度絕對負擔比例負擔
外文關鍵詞:air pollutionPM2.5O3fixed effectsenvironmental inequalitypollution exposure inequalityabsolute burdenproportional burden
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近年環境的劇烈變遷引起人們對空氣汙染的高度關注,在管制空氣汙染排放量時,也應重視空氣汙染對不同人口特性族群造成的影響。本研究使用2007年至2017年細懸浮微粒濃度和臭氧濃度資料、綜合所得總額資料與各鄉、鎮、市或區的單一年齡人口數資料,採用普通最小平方估計法、固定效果估計法、吉尼係數、絕對負擔與比例負擔來探討空氣汙染物與所得及人口之間的關係,並研究空氣汙染不均等及不同人口特性承受的汙染暴露量。
研究結果顯示普通最小平方法會使係數出現偏誤,因此使用固定效果估計法較佳,而所得項對細懸浮微粒濃度與臭氧濃度皆為顯著負影響,所得平方項皆為顯著正影響。人口結構部分,15歲以下人口對細懸浮微粒濃度與臭氧濃度皆為顯著正影響;65歲以上人口對細懸浮微粒濃度為顯著負影響,對臭氧濃度則為顯著正影響。
根據吉尼係數顯示,細懸浮微粒的汙染不均等現象越趨嚴重,臭氧濃度則越趨均等,且15歲以下人口例較高的地區遭受相對較低的細懸浮微粒濃度暴露;65歲以上人口比例較高的地區遭受相對較高的細懸浮微粒濃度暴露與相對較低的臭氧濃度暴露;低所得族群遭受相對較高的細懸浮微粒濃度與臭氧濃度暴露;高所得族群遭受相對較低的細懸浮微粒濃度暴露與相對較高的臭氧濃度暴露。
Air pollution has drawn great attention since the dramatic environmental changes in recent years. We should pay attention to the impact of air pollution on different population characteristics, while controlling air pollution emissions. This study used PM2.5 and O3 data, the total income data, and data on population by age in each town or township from 2007 to 2017. Applying OLS, fixed effects, Gini coefficient, AB and PB to clarify the relationship between air pollutants, income and population. Also consider air pollution inequality and the amount of pollution exposure sustained by different population characteristics.
The results show that fixed effects is better since OLS will cause the coefficient to be biased. The income has a significant negative effect while the income_sq has a significant positive effect on both PM2.5 and O3. In the demographic structure, the population under 15 has a significant positive effect on both PM2.5 and O3; the population over 65 has a significant negative effect on PM2.5 and a significant positive effect on O3.
According to Gini coefficient, the pollution inequality of PM2.5 becomes more serious, and O3 becomes more equal. Areas with a high proportion people under 15 expose in relatively lower PM2.5; areas with a high proportion people over 65 expose in relatively higher PM2.5 and relatively lower O3; low income groups expose in relatively higher PM2.5 and O3 whereas high income groups expose in relatively lower PM2.5 and relatively higher O3.
摘要 ....................................................................................................... i
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................. ii
致謝 ..................................................................................................... iii
目錄 ...................................................................................................... iv
圖目錄 .................................................................................................... vi
表目錄 ................................................................................................... vii
第一章 緒論 ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 研究動機 ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 研究目的 ............................................................................................... 3
1.3 研究架構 ............................................................................................... 4
第二章 研究背景 ............................................................................................. 5
2.1 台灣空氣汙染概況 ........................................................................................ 5
2.2 台灣細懸浮微粒的成因、變化與影響 ........................................................................ 11
2.3 台灣臭氧的成因、變化與影響 .............................................................................. 17
第三章 文獻回顧 ............................................................................................ 23
3.1 非經濟類參考文獻 ....................................................................................... 23
3.2 經濟類參考文獻 ......................................................................................... 26
第四章 研究方法與資料說明 .................................................................................. 30
4.1 模型設定 .............................................................................................. 30
4.2 資料來源及變數說明 ..................................................................................... 33
4.3 樣本敘述統計分析 ....................................................................................... 36
第五章 實證結果 ............................................................................................ 40
5.1 普通最小平方模型分析 ................................................................................... 40
5.2 固定效果模型分析 ....................................................................................... 45
5.3 F 檢定 ................................................................................................ 50
5.4 環境不均度分析 ......................................................................................... 51
第六章 結論 ................................................................................................ 60
6.1 研究結論與意涵 ......................................................................................... 60
6.2 研究限制與建議 ......................................................................................... 61
參考文獻 ................................................................................................... 63
附表一、細懸浮微粒濃度與人口結構之間的絕對負擔與比例負擔 ...................................................... 66
附表二、細懸浮微粒濃度與所得分配之間的絕對負擔與比例負擔 ...................................................... 67
附表三、臭氧濃度與人口結構之間的絕對負擔與比例負擔 ........................................................... 68
附表四、臭氧濃度與所得分配之間的絕對負擔與比例負擔 ........................................................... 69
附表五、空氣汙染物與所得和人口結構之間的迴歸估計結果 ......................................................... 70
附表六、空氣汙染物與所得和人口比例之間的固定效果迴歸估計結果 .................................................. 71
中文參考資料
行政院環保署 (2018),「中華民國107 年度空氣污染防制總檢討」
行政院環保署 (2019),「TEDS10.0 版排放清冊」
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行政院環保署空氣品質監測網 (2020b),「污染物特性及影響要素」,取自於https://airtw.epa.gov.tw/CHT/Encyclopedia/pedia03/pedia3_3.aspx,2020/2檢索
行政院環保署空氣品質監測網 (2020c),「相關名詞定義」,取自於https://airtw.epa.gov.tw/CHT/Encyclopedia/FAQ/relatednoun.aspx,2020/2檢索
何笠維、張欽豪與徐慈鴻 (2011),「臭氧對水稻不同品種葉片為害之比較」,《植物保護學會會刊》,53(2):47-55。
徐世達 (2013),「過敏指數預報對過敏氣喘病人的重要性再強調」,取自於http://www.asthma-edu.org.tw/asthma/member1_b.aspx?itemID=20131220093521,2020/4檢索
莊秉潔 (2010),「國光石化營運造成PM2.5 與健康及能見度之影響」,取自於http://www.tepu.org.tw/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/20100717ben%20jei%20tsuang.pdf,2020/3檢索
郭彥廉 (2002),「空氣污染防制法的修訂歷程與政策變遷」,取自於http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~yenlien/paper/policy.pdf,2020/4檢索
張修武、羅金鑑、羅如惠與陳偉芬 (1996),「臺灣地區臭氧全量之觀測與分析」,《天氣分析與預報暨海象測報研討會論文彙編》,交通部中央氣象局。
辜美安、蔡坤維與林詩淳 (2017),「細懸浮微粒暴露對健康的影響」,《醫學與健康期刊》,6(1):13–22。
葉宣婕 (2020),「驚悚!南極雪地一片血紅 背後原因令人擔憂」,取自於https://news.tvbs.com.tw/fun/1284123,2020/4檢索
賴昂廷、林益卿、楊鈺雯與吳美鳳 (2012),「氣候變遷與人類健康」,《內科學誌》,23:343-350。
謝依儒 (2016),「PM2.5 空氣中暗藏著你我所不知道的隱形殺手」,《奇美醫訊》,取自於https://www.chimei.org.tw/main/cmh_department/59012/magazin/vol113/vol_113_35.html,2020/3檢索
英文參考資料
Bell, Michelle L., and Keita Ebisu. 2012. “Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(12): 1699–1704.
Borck, Rainald, and Philipp Schrauth. 2019. “Population Density and Urban Air Quality.” Center for Economic Policy Analysis, Working Paper 8.
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Boyce, James K., Klara Zwickl, and Michael Ash. 2016. “Measuring Environmental Inequality.” Ecological Economics, 124: 114–123.
Clark, Lara P., Dylan B. Millet, and Julian D. Marshall. 2014. “National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality: Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States.” PLoS ONE, 9(4): e94431.
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He, Qi, Ran Wang, Han Ji, Gaoyang Wei, Jincheng Wang, and Jingwen Liu. 2019. “Theoretical Model of Environmental Justice and Environmental Inequality in China’s Four Major Economic Zones.” Sustainability, 11(21): 5923.
Landrigan, Philip. 2017. “Pollution and Poverty a Deadly Mix.” Stockholm Resilience Centre. https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/research-news/2017-10-25-pollution-andpoverty-a-deadly-mix.html (accessed April 27, 2020).
Lombrana, Laura Millan, Hayley Warren, and Akshat Rathi. 2020. “Measuring the Carbon-Dioxide Cost of Last Year’s Worldwide Wildfires.” Bloomberg Green. https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-fire-emissions/ (accessed April 28, 2020)
Mikati, Ihab, Adam F. Benson, Thomas J. Luben, Jason D. Sacks, and Jennifer Richmond-Bryant. 2018. “Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status.” American Journal of Public Health, 108(4): 480–485.
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Zwickl, Klara, Michael Ash, and James K. Boyce. 2014. “Regional Variation in Environmental Inequality: Industrial Air Toxics Exposure in U.S. Cities.” Ecological Economics, 107: 494–509.
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