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研究生:許書翊
研究生(外文):Su-Yih Hsu
論文名稱:台灣非典型工作市場之研究
指導教授:單驥單驥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gee San
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:產業經濟研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:非典型工作者人力運用調查多元邏輯斯迴歸
外文關鍵詞:Non-standard EmploymentManpower Utilization SurveyMultiple Logistic Regression
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全球許多國家目前以典型與非典型工作進行勞動市場區隔的研究,在文獻上最著名的兩種學說,分別為橋樑說及陷阱說,主張陷阱說的學者認為非典型工作者於任務結束後,不是失業,就是接受另一份非典型工作,如同掉入陷阱之中。主張橋樑說的學者則認為非典型工作其實是提供一種篩選的機制,使雇主能挑選適合的員工進入組織中,使非典型工作能順利與典型工作做接軌。
本文之研究目的為探討台灣勞動市場是否也以典型與非典型工作為區隔及總體經濟的成長是否對此區隔有所幫助,我們以臺灣地區的勞動人口為例,檢視非典型工作者的勞動力特性、工作身分變化、總體經濟指標等之間的關聯。本研究資料來源為行政院主計總處所提供的2013年及2017年人力運用調查,並將非典型工作者進行多元邏輯思迴歸的實證分析。
實證結果發現目前台灣勞動市場確實有此區隔,除此之外台灣目前的就業環境較為支持陷阱說,另就勞動力特性而言,典型工作者通常是男性、25~44歲、已婚、高教育工作者,非典型工作者通常為女性、15~24歲、未婚、低教育工作者。最後,雖台灣目前就業環境較為支持陷阱說,是讓人沮喪的結果,但本研究也發現在總體經濟成長時,或有脫離陷阱說的可能性。在全球非典型工作者不斷增加的情況下,如果不積極培養自己的專長,恐將淪為低收入,並進入惡性循環之一員。在預期將來巨大變化的情況下,建議政府能對他們提供相對的保護措施,並矯正一般人民的觀念,做到人盡其才,發揮勞動者的最大功能。
At present, many countries in the world use standard employment and non-standard employment to investigate the labor market segmentation. The two most famous theories in the literature are the bridge theory and the trap theory. Scholars who advocate the trap theory believe that after the completion of the previous job, non-standard workers will either fall into unemployment or accept another non-standard job, which is like entering a trap. Scholars who advocate the bridge theory believe that non-standard workers have a screening mechanism, which enables employers to select suitable employees in the process of entering the organization so that the non-standard workers can smoothly in line with the standard workers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a segmentation of standard employment and non-standard employment in the Taiwan labor market and whether the growth of the overall economy helps to reduce this segmentation. This study takes the labor force population in Taiwan to examine the characteristics of non-standard workers and their changes in work status and their association with overall economic indicators. The source of this research is the 2013 and 2017 manpower utilization surveys provided by the Chief Accounting Officer of the Executive Yuan, and conducted the empirical analysis of multiple logistic regression for the information of the non-standard workers.
The empirical results found that segmentation does exist in the current Taiwan labor market. Besides, the current employment environment in Taiwan is more supportive of the trap theory. In terms of labor characteristics, standard workers are usually male, 25-44-year-old, married, and highly educated workers, while non-standard workers are usually female, 15-24-year-old, unmarried, and low educated. Finally, although the current employment environment in Taiwan supports the trap theory, which is a frustrating result, this study also found that with the overall economic growth, non-standard workers may have a higher chance of breaking away from the trap theory. With the increasing number of non-standard workers, if you do not actively cultivate your expertise, you may become a member of low income and enter a vicious circle. In anticipation of the great changes in the future, it is suggested that the government should cooperate, provide corresponding protection measures, and correct the concept of the people, to make the best use of the workers' talents and maximize the function of all the workers.
目錄 i
圖目錄 ii
表目錄 iii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 典型與非典型勞動的市場區隔化 6
第二節 工作流動發展之區隔 7
第三節 本章小結 9
第三章 研究方法 10
第一節 資料來源 10
第二節 變數設定 12
第三節 分析方法 15
第四節 本章小結 18
第四章 非典型工作之敘述性統計結果與分析 19
第一節 非典型工作者之就業概況分佈 19
第二節 勞動力特性 21
第三節 收入與工時 22
第四節 工作身分變化情形 24
第五節 總體經濟指標 25
第六節 本章小結 26
第五章 台灣非典型工作者的工作流動情形實證結果 27
第一節 工作身分流動 28
第二節 勞動力特性 29
第三節 景氣循環燈號 30
第四節 個人特性對典型工做選擇之影響 31
第五節 本章小結 32
第六章 結論 33
參考文獻 36
附錄 39
一、中文部分
1.王雅雲 (2011),「我國非典型就業概況」,《臺灣勞工季刊》,27,100-111。
2.成之約 (1999),「淺論非典型聘僱關係工作型態的發展與影響」,《勞工行政》139,10-18。
3.江豐富 (2011),「失業、非典型就業的人口組成與工資率分析」,《台灣經濟預測與政策》,42(1),75-118。
4.辛炳隆 (2011),《運用非典型勞工提升產業競爭力之研究》,中華經濟研究院。
5.李誠、辛炳隆和成之約 (2000),《勞動市場彈性化與非典型僱用》,行政院勞工委員會。
6.柯志哲 (2008),《我國使用非典型工作型態之探討:使用情況與決定因素》,中央研究院社會學研究所。
7.柯志哲 (2014),「區隔的勞動市場?探討臺灣典型與非典型工作者的工作流動與薪資差異」,《台灣社會學刊》,55,127-177。
8.張苙雲 (1988),「行政組織內的個人事業生涯發展」,《中央研究院民族學研究所集刊》,66,1-30。
9.黃月盈 (2018),「非典型就業對國內薪資影響之研究」,《經濟研究》,19,65-82。
10.曾敏傑和Tseng, Min-Chieh (1998),「台灣核心與邊陲產業的分類:1990年代初期的靜態測量」,《東吳社會學報》。
11.謝國雄 (1989),「黑手變頭家:臺灣製造業中的階級流動」,《臺灣社會研究季刊》,2(2),11-54。
12.顏吉利 (1989),「國營事業,巨型民營企業與資源使用效率」,《壟斷與剝削:威權主義的政治經濟分析》,119-138。
二、英文部分
1.Atkinson, John (1984), “Manpower Strategies for Flexible Organizations,” Personnel Management, 16(8), 28-31.
2.Atkinson, John (1987), “Flexibility of Fragmentation? The United Kingdom Labour Market in the Eighties, ” Labour and Society, 12, 87-105.
3.Axel, Helen (1995), “Contingent Employment,” HR Executive Review, 3, 1-14.
4.Baron, J. N., & Bielby, W. T. (1980), “Bringing the firms back in: stratification, segmentation, and the organization of work,” American Sociological Review, 45, 737-765.
5.Bosanquet, N., & Doeringer, P. B. (1973), “Is There a Dual Labour Market in Great Britain?” Economic Journal, 83(330), 421-435.
6.Cohany, Sharon R. (1996). “Workers in Alternative Employment Arrangements,” Monthly Labor Review, 119(10), 31-45.
7.Dickens, William T. and Lang, Kevin (1985). “A Test of Dual Labor Market Theory,” American Economic Review, 74, 792-805.
8.Doeringer, Peter B., Piore, Michael J. (1985), Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis.
9.Giesecke, J., & Groß, M. (2003), “Temporary Employment: Chance or Risk? ” European Sociological Review, 19(2), 161-177.
10.Gordon, D. M., Edwards, R., & Reich, M. (1982) , “Segmented Work, Divided Workers,” Cambridge University Press.
11.Hodson, R., & Kaufman, R. L. (1982), “Economic Dualism: A Critical Review,” American Sociological Review, 47, 727-739.
12.Hudson, K. (2007), “The New Labor Market Segmentation: Labor Market Dualism in the New Economy.Social,” Science Research, 36(1), 286-312.
13.Kalleberg, A. L., Rasell, E., Cassirer, N., Reskin, B. F., Hudson, K., Webster, D., ... & Spalter-Roth, R. M. (1997), “Nonstandard Work, Substandard Jobs: Flexible Work Arrangements in the U.S. Washington,” D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.
14.Kalleberg, Arne L. (2000), “Nonstandard Employment Relations: Part-time, Temporary and Contract Work,” Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 341-365.
15.Kalleberg, A. L., Reskin, B. F., & Hudson, K. (2000), “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States,” American Sociological Review, 65(2), 256-278.
16.Kalleberg, A. L. (2009), “Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition,” American Sociological Review, 74(1), 1-22.
17.Reid, L. W., & Rubin, B. A. (2003), “Integrating Economic Dualism and Labor Market Segmentation: The Effects of. Race, Gender, and Structural Location on Earnings, 1974-2000,” The Sociological Quarterly, 44(2), 405-432.
18.Rosenfeld, R. A. (1992), “Job mobility and career processes,” Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 39-61.
19.Sakamoto, A., & Chen, M. D. (1991), “Inequality and Attainment in a Dual Labor Market,” American Sociological Review, 56, 295-308.
20.Sakamoto, A., & Powers, D. A. (1995), “Education and dual labor market for japanese men,” American Sociological Review, 60, 224-246.
21.Sato, Yoshimichi (2010), “Stability and Increasing Fluidity in the Contemporary Japanese Social Stratification System,” Contemporary Japan, 22, 7-21.
22.Sato, Yoshimichi, Imai, Jun (2011), Japan's New Inequality: Intersection of Employment Reforms and Welfare Arrangements.
23.Schmid, G., & Gazier, B. (Eds.). (2002), The Dynamics of Full Employment: Social Integration Through Transitional Labour Markets.
24.Tolbert, C. M. (1982), “Industrial segmentation and men career mobility,” American Sociological Review, 47, 457-477.
25.Wang, Ruqu, Weiss, Andrew (1998), “Probation, Layoff and Wage Tenure Profiles: A Sorting Explanation,” Labour Economics, 5, 359-383.
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