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研究生:彭聖倫
研究生(外文):Sheng-Lun Peng
論文名稱:試評美國運通案——雙邊市場競爭分析之反思
論文名稱(外文):A Study of American Express Cases: Rethinking Two-Sided Market’s Competition Analysis
指導教授:王明禮王明禮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Li Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:產業經濟研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:雙邊市場美國運通品牌間競爭產品異質性
外文關鍵詞:two-sided marketAmerican Expressintra-brand competitionheterogeneous products
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2018年美國聯邦最高法院首次將合理原則運用於雙邊市場中實現之垂直交易安排,美國運通案判決引發了反托拉斯學者和經濟學界的激辯。最高法院認為當市場兩組參與者需同時參與才能進行交易時,相關市場就包括平台的雙方。由於跨邊網路效應的緣故,平台一側的價格上漲不得作為具有反競爭效果的證據。又美國聯邦最高法院遵循美國聯邦最高法院將品牌間競爭作為反托拉斯主要關心目標之判決走向,將關注重點聚焦於美國運通於信用卡市場中與VISA、MasterCard、Discover等信用卡平台間之競爭。認為信用卡市場存在品牌間競爭時,即便反勸誘條款確實具有反競爭效果,該競爭不利益也能夠被市場競爭所稀釋。本文除了針對各級法院審查所提出之理由進行分析討論外,亦針對雙邊市場競爭分析之迷思進行討論。美國最高法院多數意見長久受到芝加哥學派的影響,認為唯有品牌間競爭受到損害才需要介入市場競爭。然而以美國運通案為例,即使信用卡市場中具有激烈的品牌間競爭環境,受到市場競爭現實和產品異質性影響品牌間競爭對美國運通的品牌行為牽制力將被削弱。因此本案應重新重視品牌內競爭可能帶來之效果,重新審視雙邊市場競爭分析之迷思對競爭分析所帶來之影響。
The Supreme Court’s decision which made in the American Express case, is the only U.S. antitrust case that has explicitly addressed the unique issues raised by so-called platform or multi-sided markets. And the decision might tell us about the attitudes of the Court’s five-Justice majority about antitrust law. As had the Second Circuit, the majority relied heavily on a discrete body of academic literature regarding two-sided platforms to define credit card networks as a special type of two-sided platform known as a transaction’ platform. The Court then reasoned the key feature of transaction platforms is that they cannot make a sale to one side of the platform without simultaneously making a sale to the other. The Court also maintained that two-sided platforms exhibit indirect network effects, which means the value of the services that a two-sided platform provides increases as the number of participants on both sides of the platform increases. The majority thought the plaintiff had to provide evidence that the overall “transaction” price of the platform's services had increased, otherwise there’s no reason show that the agreeing with Amex increase anticompetitive effect.
According to the majority’s inference, the loss of intra-brand competition can only be problematic if inter-brand competition is limited. There’s no need to worry when the intra-brand competition exists. The purpose of this study was to show that even if there’s competition in credit card market, American Express still have market power to force the merchant accept their service. Since the competition in credit card market can no longer tie up the companies behavior, it is necessary to recheck vertical restraints which is about interbrand competition. And rethinking the two-sided market competition analysis.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景及動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題意識 2
第三節 研究方法與限制 4
第四節 研究架構 4
第二章 信用卡產業介紹 5
第一節 信用卡產業運作模式 5
第一項 信用卡支付運作模式 7
第二項 美國運通與他公司運作模式比較 8
第三項 美國運通案事實 10
第二節 雙邊市場介紹 13
第一項 與單邊市場差異 15
第二項 相關市場界定困難 18
第三節 信用卡市場 23
第三章 美國運通案法院判決 27
第一節 審查標準 28
第二節 相關市場 29
第三節 反競爭效果認定 32
第一項 紐約東區聯邦地方法院 32
第二項 第二巡迴上訴法院 35
第三項 美國聯邦最高法院 36
第四項 最高法院不同意見書 38
第四節 小結 38
第四章 美國運通案競爭分析 41
第一節 市場界定 43
第一項 Ohio v. American Express 47
第二項 市場界定必要性 50
第二節 美國運通的市場力量 53
第一項 持卡人堅持 55
第二項 平台使用者歸屬 58
第三項 市場封閉性 60
第三節 反勸誘條款的反競爭效果 64
第一項 提高信用卡交易成本 66
第二項 提高信用卡市場價格 67
第三項 未防止搭便車 70
第四節 綜合討論 74
第五章 競爭分析反思 79
第一節 品牌間競爭對美國運通牽制力 79
第一項 品牌間競爭減少 83
第二項 產品異質性 85
第二節 不平衡之傾斜式價格結構 89
第三節 綜合討論 91
第六章 結論 97
第七章 參考文獻 99
中文文獻
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阮韻倩,以雙邊市場角度分析搜尋引擎的相關市場,公平交易季刊,第26卷第1期,頁57,2018年01月。
周振鋒,美國法對轉售價格維持的新發展—兼論公平交易法第18條的妥適性,公平交易季刊,第19卷1期,頁122-126,2011年01月。
陳志民,To Sylvania and Beyond!:一項分水嶺判決之理論建構及延伸觀點, 公平交易季刊,第 19 卷第 1 期,頁 52,2011年01月(2011)。
陳志民,反托拉斯法對搭售安排市場力量之分析—已Kodak法則之運用、延伸與限制,行政院國家科學委員會補助專題研究計畫報告成果,2001年11月。
陳志民,支付系統競爭議題及規範架構之建立,公平交易季刊,第27卷第3期,頁32,2019年07月。
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陳志民、陳若暉、顏雅倫等等,支付系統與競爭,107年公平交易委員會委托研究報告1, 頁105,2018年11月。
黃銘傑,限制轉售價格之規範理念與革新之道—以經濟分析及我國法制變革為中心,公平交易季刊,第27卷第3期,頁58頁,2019年07月。
趙莉莉,反壟斷法相關市場界定中的雙邊性—理論適用的挑戰和分化,中外法學,第30卷第02期,頁512-31,2018年04月。
鄭炳耀,美國信用卡兩雄之爭Visa、MasterCard,2009年06月29日,https://www.brain.com.tw/news/articlecontent?ID=2987。
賴文智、顏雅倫,看懂反托拉斯案件中的「市場力量」與「相關市場」,經貿透視雙周刊,第464期,頁122 ,2017年03月。
顏雅倫,雙邊/多邊市場之競爭與創新–論競爭法之因應,科技法學評論,第13卷第1期,頁244,2016年06月。

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