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研究生:林輝能
研究生(外文):Hui-Nen Lin
論文名稱:資料探勘關聯規則應用於實體電子遊戲場營業資料之研究–以老虎機(Slot Machine)為例
指導教授:王存國王存國引用關係
指導教授(外文):Eric T.G. Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系在職專班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:老虎機電子遊戲場資料探勘關聯性規則
外文關鍵詞:Slot MachinesArcade IndustryData MiningAssociation Rules
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電子遊戲場業為了內部管理,及面對同業間的競爭,透過資訊化系統來導入會員制,己經是目前的趨勢。電子遊戲場業者希望透過資訊化系統的導入,除了降低業者的營運成本外,更可以讓業者擬定更好的促銷優惠活動、及更佳的遊戲款式配置,進而增加體整營業的績效。

本研究以個案電子遊戲場所設置的老虎機,來收集全部玩家資料,透過統計及資料探勘的關聯規則,來分析會員與非會員對老虎機的消費行為,用以評估現有促銷優惠方案的效果,並評估現有老虎機遊戲款式的配置。

本研究發現,非會員會在隱私問題的考量下,不會因為現有促銷優惠方案而加入變成會員,業者必須另外針對非會員,擬定可以消除其隱私顧慮的促銷優惠方案。本研究亦發現,會員與非會員對遊戲款式的喜好,存在極大的差異,除了遊戲款式的配置必須同時考量兩者的不同喜好外,兩者對遊戲屬性的偏好差異,亦可提供遊戲製造商在開發遊戲時的參考。
To facilitate efficient internal management and cope with horizontal competitions, it has been a trend for the amusement arcade industry to introduce membership systems using information management systems. The industry expects the introduction of information management systems not only to lower the costs, but also design better promotion plans and game models, thus creating better overall business performance.

This research demonstrates a case study, which first shows how to use statistical methods and association rules in data mining to analyze information of players collected from slot machines and studies different consumer behaviors of members and potential members (non-members) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing promotion plans and the arrangements of slot machines of an amusement arcade.

This research reveals that due to privacy concerns, potential members will not apply for the membership even though there are certain promotion benefits offered to members. Promotion plans that can eliminate potential members’ privacy concerns should be conducted. The research also concludes that members’ and potential members’ preferences for game models are very different. The preference differences have to be considered when arranging game models and developing new games for the slot machines.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 4
1.3 研究目的 6
1.4 論文架構 6
第2章 文獻探討 7
2.1 老虎機 (Slot Machines) 介紹 7
2.2 玩家特徵 9
2.3 資料探勘 (Data Mining) 11
2.4 關聯規則 (Association Rules) 13
2.5 Apriori演算法 17
2.6 相關研究 18
第3章 研究方法 19
3.1 研究基礎 19
3.2 採用工具 20
3.3 研究對象 21
3.4 資料前處理 22
3.5 資料分析方法 25
第4章 個案分析 27
4.1 個案介紹 27
4.2 資料分析 28
4.2.1 全部玩家之投注資料分析 28
4.2.2 會員之投注資料分析 30
4.2.3 非會員之投注資料分析 32
4.2.4 資料探勘關聯規則分析 34
4.3 個案發現 40
4.3.1 玩家種類分析與發現 40
4.3.2 遊戲款式分析與發現 41
4.3.3 消費時段分析與發現 42
4.4 個案分析總結 43
4.4.1 促銷優惠活動 43
4.4.2 遊戲款式配置 46
第5章 結論 48
5.1 研究總結 48
5.2 研究管理意涵 49
5.3 研究限制 49
5.4 未來研究方向 50
參考文獻 51
【中文文獻】
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(2) 陳彥翰 (2012)。吃角子老虎機中維持穩定中獎率與回饋率之研究(碩士論文)。取自 https://hdl.handle.net/11296/eb8498
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(5) 曾國書 (2017)。博弈娛樂場顧客行為特徵與動機相關性之研究-以新竹地區為例(碩士論文)。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/m3cfrv
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(7) 電子遊戲場業管理條例 (2016年12月28日) 。
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(9) 澳門特別行政區政府博彩監察協調局 (2020),「老虎機技術標準第1.1版」, http://www.dicj.gov.mo/web/files/standards/Macau_EGM_Technical_Standards_v1.1-CN.pdf,存取時間:2020年12月9日。
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【英文文獻】
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(4) Coates, E., & Blaszczynski, A. (2013). “Predictors of Return Rate Discrimination in Slot Machine Play.” Journal of Gambling Behavior, 30(3), 669-683.
(5) Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., el-Guebaly, N., Wynne, H., & Chen, S. (2006). “Risk of Harm Among Gamblers in the General Population as a Function of Level of Participation in Gambling Activities.” Addiction, 101(4), 570–580.
(6) Dixon, M. J., Graydon, C., Harrigan, K. A., Wojtowicz, L., Siu, V., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2014). “The Allure of Multi‐Line Games in Modern Slot Machines.” Addiction, 109(11), 1920‐1928.
(7) Dixon, M. R., Maclin, O. H. & Daugherty, D. (2006). “An Evaluation of Response Allocations to Concurrently Available Slot Machine Simulations.” Behavior Research Methods, 38, 232–236.
(8) Fayyad, U., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., & Smyth, P. (1996). “The KDD Process for Extracting Useful Knowledge from Volumes of Data.” Communications of the ACM, 39(11), 27-34.
(9) Griffiths, M. (1993). “Fruit Machine Gambling: The Importance of Structural Characteristics.” Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 101–120.
(10) Griffiths, M. (1999). “Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling.” Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 265-283.
(11) Han, J., Kamber, M., & Pei, J. (2011). “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques.” San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc.
(12) Harrigan, K.A. & Dixon, M. (2009). “PAR Sheets, Probabilities, and Slot Machine Play: Implications for Problem and Non-Problem Gambling.” Journal of Gambling Issues, 23, 81-110.
(13) Harris, A., & Griffiths, M.D. (2018). “The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: a Critical Review.” Journal of Gambling Studies, 34, 393–412.
(14) IGT (2020). “Systems.” (accessed 2020/03/31, available at: https://www.igt.com/products-and-services/gaming/systems).
(15) Inmon, W. H. & Hackathorn, R. D. (1994). “Using the Data Warehouse.” New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
(16) Langer, E. J., & Roth, J. (1975). “Heads I Win, Tails It's Chance: The Illusion of Control as a Function of the Sequence of Outcomes in a Purely Chance Task.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(6), 951–955.
(17) Livingstone, C., Woolley, R., Zazryn, T., Bakacs, L., & Shami, R. (2008). “The Relevance and Role of Gaming Machine Games and Game Features on the Play of Problem Gamblers.” Adelaide, South Australia: Independent Gambling Authority of South Australia.
(18) Lucas, A. F., & Brandmeir, K. D. (2005). “Estimatin the Short-Term Effects of an Increase in Par on Reel Slot Performance.” UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 9(2), 1-14.

(19) Lucas, A. F., & Singh, A. K. (2011). “Estimating the Ability of Gamblers to Detect Differences in the Payback Percentages of Reel Slot Machines: A Closer Look at the Slot Player Experience.” UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 15, 17-36.
(20) Lucas, A. F., Singh, A. K., & Gewali, L. (2007). “Simulating the Effect of Pay Table Standard Deviation on Pulls Per Losing Player at the Single-Visit Level.” UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 11(1), 41-52.
(21) Nisbet, S. (2005). “Responsible Gambling Features of Card-Based Technologies.” International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3(2), 54-63.
(22) Pachman, D. (2018, April 5). Re: Understanding a Slot Players Volatility Profile. [Web blog message]. Retrieved from https://linkedin.com/pulse/understanding-slot-players-volatility-profile-darrin-pachman/
(23) Thomas A., Delfabbro, P., & Armstrong, A. (2014). “Validation Study of In-Venue Problem Gambling Indicators.” Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.
(24) Weir, J. (1998). “Data Mining: Exploring the Corporate Asset.” Information Systems Management, 15(4), 68-71.
(25) WEKA (2020). “WEKA.” (accessed 2020/03/02, available at: https://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/).
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