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研究生:李欣儒
研究生(外文):Hsin-Ru Lee
論文名稱:結合黎曼幾何特徵與共同空間型樣法於腦波多類別想像運動分類
論文名稱(外文):Classification of Multiclass Motor Imagery EEG Using CSP and Riemannian Geometry Methods
指導教授:徐國鎧
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:腦電圖想像運動共同空間型樣法聯合近似對角化濾波器組黎曼幾何
外文關鍵詞:ElectroencephalographicMotor ImageryCommon Spatial PatternJoint Approximate DiagonalizationFilter BankRiemannian Geometry
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腦機介面(Brain Computer Interface, BCI)提供大腦與外部設備之間一個
有效的溝通橋樑,透過腦電圖(Electroencephalogram, EEG)解碼並轉化為指
令,從而實現與外界交流及對外部設備的控制,進而協助肢體運動功能障礙
患者表達意念,並改善現有之生活品質,而想像運動(Motor Imagery, MI)也
已被證實是操作腦機介面的一種有效方式。然而,基於想像運動操作腦機介
面的研究中,常出現無法準確辨認使用者的操作指令以及演算法複雜度高
導致計算時間過長等問題。本論文旨在開發一基於想像運動之腦機介面分
類架構,該架構分別結合以聯合近似對角化為基礎之濾波器組共同空間型
樣法以及黎曼幾何之切線空間投影法以獲取多類別想像運動腦電圖訊號之
特徵,並透過特徵選取保留與類別相關性高之特徵,以降低特徵空間維度,
後續則藉由分類器進行解碼,藉此達到腦電圖訊號分類之目的。此方法不僅
透過聯合近似對角化之方法降低演算法於多類別分類上之計算複雜度,同
時有效提升想像運動之分類性能。最後,經由BCI Competition IV dataset 2a
及自行錄製之數據集進行測試,實驗結果成功地驗證本論文所提出演算法
之有效性;其中,在BCI Competition IV dataset 2a 的數據集測試下,9 位受
試者於四類別想像運動腦電圖訊號之平均分類準確率可達75.39%,而在自
行錄製的腦波數據集測試下,5 位受試者於三類別想像運動腦電圖訊號之平
均分類準確率可達72.26%。
The brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes an effective bridge between
the human brain and external devices. BCI is a system capable of decoding
electroencephalographic (EEG) signals into device commands to communicate
with the external environment and control the devices, thereby assisting patients
with executive dysfunction to express their intent and improve the quality of life.
Nowadays, motor imagery (MI) has proved to be an effective way to operate BCI.
However, BCI based on MI often fails to correctly recognize the user’s mental
commands. Here we aim to develop a BCI classification architecture based on MI,
which combines the filter bank common spatial pattern based on joint
approximate diagonalization and Riemannian tangent space mapping to obtain
features from multiclass MI EEG. To prevent over-fitting, we retain the features
with a high correlation with the class through feature selection to reduce the
dimensionality of the feature space. Finally, use the classifier to decode EEG
signals. This architecture not only reduces the computational complexity of the
algorithm for multiclass classification through joint approximate diagonalization
but also effectively improves the classification performance of MI task. The
architecture was validated by the BCI Competition IV dataset 2a and the in-house
dataset. The results indicated that our proposed architecture had achieved 75.39%
mean accuracy on the BCI Competition IV dataset 2a with four classes of MI tasks
and had achieved 72.26% mean accuracy on the in-house dataset with three
classes of MI tasks.
摘要 ........................................................................................................................ I
Abstract ................................................................................................................ II
致謝 ..................................................................................................................... III
目錄 ..................................................................................................................... IV
圖目錄 ................................................................................................................ VII
表目錄 ................................................................................................................ XII
第一章 緒論 ......................................................................................................... 1
1-1 前言 ........................................................................................................ 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 ................................................................................... 2
1-3 文獻回顧與探討 ................................................................................... 3
1-4 內容大綱 ................................................................................................ 5
第二章 腦電訊號 ................................................................................................. 6
2-1 腦機介面 ................................................................................................ 6
2-2 想像運動 ................................................................................................ 7
2-3 腦電圖訊號量測之硬體規格 ............................................................... 9
第三章 演算法原理與分析 ............................................................................... 10
3-1 帶通濾波器之頻帶選擇 ..................................................................... 10
3-2 共同空間型樣法 ................................................................................. 11
3-3 黎曼幾何與黎曼流形基礎 ................................................................. 17
3-3-1 歐氏空間與黎曼空間 .............................................................. 17
3-3-2 腦電圖訊號之黎曼幾何特性 .................................................. 17
3-3-3 黎曼距離 .................................................................................. 19
3-3-4 黎曼對數/指數投影 ................................................................. 22
3-3-5 黎曼均值 .................................................................................. 25
3-3-6 黎曼切線空間投影 .................................................................. 26
3-4 基於濾波器組共同空間型樣法之切線空間投影 ............................. 29
3-4-1 重疊頻帶之帶通濾波器組 ...................................................... 30
3-4-2 多類別共同空間型樣法 .......................................................... 32
3-4-3 特徵結合 .................................................................................. 40
3-4-4 特徵選取及分類 ...................................................................... 41
第四章 實驗結果與討論 ................................................................................... 43
4-1 實驗數據分析...................................................................................... 43
4-1-1 BCI Competition IV Dataset IIa ................................................ 43
4-1-2 自行錄製之想像運動腦電圖數據 .......................................... 45
4-2 擴展共同空間型樣法至多類別分類之方法比較 ............................. 46
4-3 FBCSP-TSM 演算法參數之選擇 ........................................................ 48
4-3-1 共同空間型樣法之空間濾波器參數比較 .............................. 48
4-3-2 帶通濾波器組之頻帶數量 ...................................................... 49
4-3-3 帶通濾波器組頻帶重疊之頻寬大小 ...................................... 51
4-4 特徵選取之實驗結果 ......................................................................... 52
4-5 多類別想像運動腦電圖訊號之實驗結果 ......................................... 60
第五章 結論與未來展望 ................................................................................... 72
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................. 73
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