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研究生(外文):Chia-Ju Peng
論文名稱(外文):Sensing and actuation with interpenetrated polymers, application in microrobotics
指導教授:陳世叡Luc ChassagneBarthélemy Cagneau
指導教授(外文):Shih-Jui ChenLuc ChassagneBarthélemy Cagneau
外文關鍵詞:Soft roboticsConducting polymersActuatorsSensors
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This thesis deals with the measurements, modeling, and the demonstration of a conducting polymer transducer for robotic applications. As a subfamily of electroactive polymers, conducting polymer has advantages of low operating voltage, large deformation capabilities, ease of manufacturing, and integration within the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). Because of a reversible electrochemical process, conducting polymers can be used as actuators or mechanical sensors. In this work, we investigate a PEDOT-based conducting polymer with the architecture of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) from a robotic perspective. Thanks to the pseudo-trilayer compact structure, this conducting polymer is promising for applications of great interest in soft sensors and soft actuators at the macro- or microscale.
The behaviors and performances of the conducting polymer transducer as a bending actuator and as a bending sensor are investigated, respectively. Two working modes, namely actuation and sensing, are identified through modeling and experimental validations. With the experiments and validations, the performances of the slender-shape bending polymer actuator, including the free displacement and the output force, are characterized based on the mechanical model. Mathematical derivation and measurements are employed to identify the parameters. The results show the tip displacements and the forces of the bending actuators versus time, position, and given voltage. The electrical responses of the bending polymer sensors in different bending conditions are measured. Analytical functions of electrical responses are derived in order to identify the sensing outputs and the parameters of the model. The capability of the electrical model to predict the output voltage of the bending sensor versus time in a good agreement with experiments is shown in the study. Besides, the sensing signal drops over time, especially in quasi-static mechanical deformation. It is characterized based on modeling, and a compensation method is proposed to balance the decreasing voltage of the polymer sensor.
To demonstrate both the functions to sense and actuate achieved within the same material, a soft gripper made of two polymer fingers (one active and one passive) is presented in this thesis. This is a promising first step towards more complex 3D structures. The gripping force of the active finger can be set with the driving input and estimated by the proposed mechanical model. The passive finger of the gripper outputs a sensing signal when grasping an object, which is useful to monitor the contact with the object and to control the gripper in closed-loop. A sphere was successfully lifted in the experiment, and we were able to detect the gripping phase and the time when the contact was broken. The gripping force was monitored with the corresponding sensing output by the linear model of the polymer sensor.
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements IV
Table of contents VI
Table of figures IX
Chapter 1. Introduction and overview 1
1.1. Overview 1
1.2. Applications in micro-world 2
1.3. Motivation and problem statement 11
1.4. Thesis outline 13
Chapter 2. Physico-chemical material background about C-IPN 15
2.1. Introduction 15
2.2. Conducting polymers for robotics 16
2.2.1. Active polymers as intelligent materials 16
2.2.2. Conducting interpenetrated polymer network 31
2.3. Fabrication process 32
2.4. Actuation and sensing behaviors of the trilayer transducer 34
2.5. Summary 35
Chapter 3. Electromechanical characterization of polymer actuators and sensors 36
3.1. Introduction 36
3.2. Mechanical properties and modeling 37
3.2.1. Modeling 37
3.2.2. Experimental test 47
3.3. Electrical properties and modeling 49
3.3.1. Equivalent circuit of polymer 49
3.3.2. Impedance model of the actuator 50
3.3.3. Electrical response of the sensor 52
3.3.4. Leakage identification and compensation 57
3.4. Summary 61
Chapter 4. Measurements and validations of actuation and sensing 62
4.1. Introduction 62
4.2. Development of electronics for experiments 62
4.3. Video tracking for deflection of polymers 69
4.3.1. Measuring setup 69
4.3.2. Image processing method 71
4.4. Performance measurements of C-IPN actuators 74
4.4.1. Experimental setup 74
4.4.2. Tip displacement 75
4.4.3. Force measurement 83
4.5. Performance measurements of C-IPN sensors 88
4.5.1. Experimental setup 88
4.5.2. Response to an impulse disturbance 91
4.5.3. Response to a step disturbance 101
4.5.4. Response to a periodic disturbance 107
4.6. Case study: a soft gripper system 113
4.6.1. Grasping experiment 113
4.6.2. Model coupling and gripping force detection 119
4.7. Summary 129
Chapter 5. Perspectives in micro robotics 131
5.1. Introduction 131
5.2. Conducting polymer in microfabrication 132
5.3. Measurement of performance in micropolymers 136
5.3.1. Tip displacement and the force of the microactuator 136
5.3.2. Output signal of the microsensor 140
5.4. Demonstrations of the microgripper using the brain-computer interface 146
5.4.1. Experimental setup 146
5.4.2. Brainwave processing method 149
5.4.3. Grasping experiments 152
5.5. Summary 157
Chapter 6. Conclusion and outlook 158
Publications 164
Appendix A. Analytical expression of elastic cantilevers for mechanical modeling 165
Appendix B. Recognition of attentiveness level using Hilbert-Huang transform and support machine learning 169
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