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研究生:陳子蔚
研究生(外文):Tzu-Wei Chen
論文名稱:球上平衡機器人
論文名稱(外文):The Balancing of Ballbot
指導教授:羅吉昌
指導教授(外文):Ji-Chang Lo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:球上平衡機器人平衡Arduino慣性量測單元麥克納姆輪
外文關鍵詞:BallbotBalanceArduinoIMUMecanum wheel
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球上平衡機器人,顧名思義,是將機器人平衡在球上。機構上以微控制器Arduino 做為系統的主控板,搭配上慣性量測單元IMU和四顆直流馬達組合成機器人。IMU 使用的是六軸感測器模組GY521,經由三軸加速度計和三軸陀螺儀計所獲得的資訊計算出二維空間的翻滾角和俯仰角,並運用馬達驅動板L298N 控制各個直流馬達。根據與水平面形成的角度差,做為系統的輸入,使用PID 控制做運算,得到相對應的輸出量,使用脈衝寬度調變技術PWM,透過逆向運動學(Inverse kinematics)計算出各個馬達所需要的控制量,輸入至各個馬達中,控制麥克納姆輪的轉速。同時,依照翻滾角和俯仰角的正負值,決定馬達的旋轉方向,使該機器人平衡在球上。
Ballbot, the robot balancing on a ball. Mechanically, it is a robot consisting of microcontroller Arduino being the main control board of the system which has the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and four DC motors.The IMU is a six-axis sensor GY521,through the accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate the roll and pitch angles. With that feedback signals,the motor driver board L298N uses them to control DC motors.Through inverse kinematics, the PID control is to calculate the required control amount and is realized by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) that are fed into each motor, to control the rotation speed of the Mecanum wheels.Simultaneously, the roll angle and the pitch angle are used to determine the rotation direction of the motor, so that the robot is balanced on the ball.
誌謝 vii
目錄 viii
一、緒論 1
1.1 背景介紹....................... 1
1.2 研究動機....................... 2
1.3 文獻回顧....................... 3
1.4 論文架構....................... 5
二、系統架構及元件介紹 7
2.1 系統架構....................... 7
2.2 硬體元件....................... 9
三、機構設計 15
3.1 設計概念...................... 15
3.2 零件繪製...................... 16
3.2.1 各零件圖檔.................. 17
3.3 層架設計...................... 20
3.3.1 第一層...................... 21
3.3.2 第二層...................... 22
3.3.3 第三層...................... 22
3.4 完整機構...................... 23
四、姿態運算 28
4.1 簡介.......................... 28
4.2 前置作業....................... 29
4.3 校正數據....................... 33
4.4 合成姿態角..................... 35
4.4.1 加速度計..................... 37
4.4.2 陀螺儀....................... 37
4.4.3 互補濾波..................... 38
五、運動學分析 40
5.1 模型描述....................... 40
5.2 假設........................... 42
5.3 轉矩轉換........................ 43
5.4 差異........................... 47
5.5 逆向運動學...................... 50
5.6 正向運動學...................... 50
六、控制方法 53
6.1 L298N 控制..................... 53
6.1.1 PWM ......................... 54
6.2 PID 控制....................... 56
6.2.1 角度控制...................... 58
6.2.2 速度控制...................... 59
6.3 旋轉編碼器...................... 61
6.3.1 編碼器的分辨率................. 63
6.3.2 中斷服務...................... 65
6.4 馬達轉向控制..................... 67
七、結論與未來展望 70
7.1 結論............................ 70
7.2 未來展望........................ 71
參考文獻 72
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