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研究生:朱家銓
研究生(外文):Chia-Chuan Chu
論文名稱:雷射積層製造用高韌性鐵基金屬玻璃粉末與其工件性質之研究
論文名稱(外文):Fe-based metallic glass powder with high fracture toughness preparation and additive manufacturing workpiece properties analysis
指導教授:鄭憲清
指導教授(外文):Shian-Ching Jang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:鐵基金屬玻璃氣噴粉體法積層製造磨耗測試抗腐蝕
外文關鍵詞:Fe-based bulk metallic glassgas atomizationadditive manufacturingabrasion testcorrosion resistance
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本研究使用鐵基金屬玻璃Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-Co-Al 七元合金成分,以真空
感應高週波爐將之融煉成合金鑄錠,委由工研院以氣噴粉體法(Gas
atomization)製備成球型粉體,將每一爐次粉體經搖篩機篩分,再以X 光繞
射確認各區間粒徑粉體之非晶性與析出相。根據結果顯示粒徑在90 μm 以
下皆保有析出相α-Fe 組織以及非晶態,而當粒徑在25 μm 以下時為全非
晶結構。利用EPMA 確認粉體成分,運用掃描式電子顯微鏡觀測其粉體外
觀,粉體形貌為球型且截面皆為實心構造,進行積層製造可型性的評估。
積層製造工件製備可行性的評估上,使用粒徑區間25-53 μm 之粉體進
行面型燒結測試與方塊燒結測試,並對試片進行性質分析。以雷射積層製
造將7 組不同雷射功率與掃描速率組合進行面型燒結測試,成功燒結出尺
寸為10 mm x 10 mm x 3 mm 之方塊,方塊1(60 W-150 mm/s)、4(80 W-150
mm/s)、6(60 W-110 mm/s)外觀較為完整,故以此3 組參數進行主要分析。
面燒結方塊經X 光繞射分析確認其非晶性,硬度也可高達1273 Hv。
雷射積層製造鐵基金屬玻璃試片之磨耗率(1.06x10-6 mm3N-1m-1)和商
用不鏽鋼SS420(7.52x10-6 mm3N-1m-1)與SKDII (2.83x10-6 mm3N-1m-1)相比,
雷射積層製造鐵基金屬玻璃試片之耐磨耗能力遠高於不鏽鋼並和SKDII 相
當。雷射積層製造鐵基金屬玻璃試片的腐蝕電流與腐蝕電壓為1.61x10-7
(A/cm2)和-0.252 V,雷射積層製造鐵基金屬玻璃試片其抗腐蝕能力遠高於
模具鋼 SKDII,並與商用的不鏽鋼 SS420 相當,因此鐵基金屬玻璃粉體經
積層製造作為MIM 模具後勢看俏。
The alloy composition of Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-Co-Al 7 components Fe-based
alloy was selected as the master alloy and prepared by vacuum induction melting.
Then the alloy ingots were re-melted and fabricated into spherical alloy powder
by gas atomization process in the Material and Chemical Laboratories, Industrial
Technology Research Institute (ITRI, Hsinchu). After size sieving, the Fe-based
alloy powder was characterized its amorphous status by X-ray diffraction (XRD).
The XRD results revealed that a broaden peak accompanied the weak crystalline
peaks of α-Fe occurred at the alloy powders with particle size below 90 μm.
Meanwhile, the appearance of all these Fe-based alloy powders present a
spherical shape and a solid cross-section.
7 sets parameters of laser power and scanning rate were obtained from the
results of square laser melting test by microscope observation. Then these 7 sets
parameters were applied to do the cube SLM test. After SLM, the cubes with
dimension 10 mm x 10 mm x 3 mm were successfully made. However, cracks
were found on the surface of most SLM cubes except the cubes made by the
parameters of P60-S150(#1), P80-S150(#4) and P60-S110(#6).
The Fe-based SLM sample shows the minimum wear rate of 1.95x10-6
mm3N-1m-1 among all samples in comparison with SS316 and SS304. The Febased
SLM sample also shows better corrosion resistance than SKDII. This Febased
amorphous alloy powder still have ideal properties after SLM.
目錄
中文摘要 .............................................................................................................. I
Abstract ............................................................................................................... II
致謝 ................................................................................................................... III
目錄 ................................................................................................................... IV
表目錄 .............................................................................................................. VII
圖目錄 ............................................................................................................ VIII
第一章 緒論 ...................................................................................................... 1
1-1 金屬玻璃 .............................................................................................. 1
1-2 研究目的與動機 .................................................................................. 2
第二章 文獻回顧 .............................................................................................. 8
2-1 金屬玻璃合金之概述 ............................................................................. 8
2-2 金屬玻璃合金發展 ................................................................................. 8
2-3 金屬玻璃合金設計與製作 ................................................................... 10
2-3-1 實驗歸納法則 ................................................................................ 10
2-3-2 金屬玻璃合金製程 ........................................................................ 11
2-4 金屬玻璃合金特性 ............................................................................... 12
2-4-1 熱力學性質 .................................................................................... 12
2-4-2 特徵溫度 ........................................................................................ 13
2-4-3 玻璃形成能力 (GFA, glass forming ability) ................................ 14
2-5 氣噴粉之粉體製備 ............................................................................... 15
2-6 積層製造 ............................................................................................... 16
2-6-1 選擇性雷射燒結(SLM,selective laser melting) ......................... 17
2-6-2 鐵基金屬玻璃粉體應用於積層製造 ............................................ 18
2-7 金屬玻璃合金之機械性質與檢測方法 ............................................... 19
2-7-1 維克式(Vickers)硬度量測 ............................................................. 19
2-7-2 材料之破裂韌性 ............................................................................ 20
V
第三章 實驗步驟與方法 ................................................................................ 27
3-1 實驗目的及流程 ................................................................................... 27
3-2 氣噴粉體之合金製備 ........................................................................... 27
3-2-1 合金配製 ........................................................................................ 27
3-2-2 合金熔煉 ........................................................................................ 28
3-2-3 粉體製備(氣噴粉體法) ................................................................ 28
3-2-4 粉體粒徑篩選 ................................................................................ 28
3-3 金屬玻璃粉體之性質分析 ................................................................... 29
3-3-1 XRD 繞射分析 .............................................................................. 29
3-3-2 成分分析(高解析度場發射電子微探儀(FE-EPMA)) ................. 29
3-3-3 粉體之表面&截面形貌之SEM 觀察 .......................................... 30
3-3-4 熱性質分析 .................................................................................... 30
3-4 積層製造 ............................................................................................... 30
3-4-1 面型燒結測試 ................................................................................ 31
3-4-2 方塊燒結測試 ................................................................................ 31
3-5 積層製造工件燒結性質分析 ............................................................... 31
3-5-1 積層製造工件之能量密度計算 .................................................... 31
3-5-2 積層製造工件之立體顯微鏡分析 ................................................ 32
3-5-3 X 光繞射分析 .............................................................................. 32
3-5-4 工件緻密度量測 ............................................................................ 32
3-5-5 維式硬度量測 ................................................................................ 33
3-5-6 破裂韌性量測 ................................................................................ 33
3-5-7 磨耗測試(Wear resistance) ............................................................ 33
3-5-8 腐蝕測試(動態極化法) ................................................................ 34
3-5-9 熱性質分析 .................................................................................... 35
第四章 結果與討論 ........................................................................................ 48
4-1 粉末性質分析 ....................................................................................... 48
4-1-1 X-ray 繞射分析............................................................................... 48
VI
4-1-2 粉體形貌之觀察 ............................................................................ 49
4-1-3 EPMA 成分分析 ............................................................................. 49
4-1-4 非恆溫熱性質分析 ........................................................................ 50
4-2 粉體雷射積層製造測試分析 ............................................................... 50
4-2-1 面型燒結試片之立體顯微鏡觀察 ................................................ 50
4-2-2 方塊燒結測試 ................................................................................ 51
4-3 塊材性質分析 ....................................................................................... 51
4-3-1 X 光繞射分析 ................................................................................. 51
4-3-2 緻密度量測 .................................................................................... 51
4-3-3 熱性質分析 .................................................................................... 52
4-3-4 維克氏硬度分析 ............................................................................ 52
4-3-5 破裂韌性量測 ................................................................................ 52
4-3-6 磨耗測試 ........................................................................................ 53
4-3-7 腐蝕性質分析 ................................................................................ 54
第五章 結論 ................................................................................................... 93
第六章 參考文獻 ............................................................................................. 95
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