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研究生:沈哲墉
研究生(外文):Zhe-Yong Shen
論文名稱:超音波輔助電化學加工微孔陣列之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation of Ultrasonic-Assisted Electrochemical Machining of Micro-Hole Array
指導教授:崔海平
指導教授(外文):Hai-Ping Hsui
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:超音波輔助電化學加工微孔陣列空蝕作用
外文關鍵詞:Ultrasonic-AssistedElectrochemical MachiningMicro-Hole ArrayCavitation
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  本論文為超音波輔助電化學加工微孔陣列之研究,採用超音波輔助振動一體式陣列電極,對301不鏽鋼試片進行陣列鑽孔加工,並探討各種加工參數如:超音波振幅、工作電壓、脈衝休止時間及電極進給速率對各種加工特性的影響如:平均對角線長、對角線長變異量、微孔入口及出口之錐角。
  實驗結果顯示,超音波輔助振動電極對電解液產生週期性的壓力差,這個週期性的壓力差形成泵吸作用及空蝕作用,泵吸作用使大範圍的電解液被吸入、排出加工間隙,而空蝕作用所產生的微氣泡破裂後產生微射流高速擾動小範圍的電解液。上述兩種作用能有效的更新加工間隙內的電解液,補充電化學反應中消耗的離子,並將間隙中的固體反應產物、氣體及反應熱排出,進而提升加工速度,並降低微孔陣列之平均對角線長。當使用超音波輔助電化學加工微孔陣列時,超音波振幅由0.94μm(超音波振幅1段)提升至2.87μm(超音波振幅9段)時可提升加工速度500%以上。在超音波振幅9段(2.87μm)、工作電壓11V、脈衝休止時間50μs、電極進給速率5μm/s實驗最佳參數組合下進行加工,能夠得到最小的平均對角線長1200μm及較小的對角線長變異量44μm,並能改善微孔入口及出口之錐角。
This thesis is an investigation of ultrasonic-assisted electrochemical machining of the micro-hole array. In this study, one-piece array electrode assisted by ultrasonic vibration is used to produce micro-hole array on 301 stainless steel plate. The effects of processing parameters such as ultrasonic amplitude, working voltage, pulse off time and electrode feed rate on quality characteristics. The quality characteristics including average diagonal length, diagonal length variation, inlet taper angle and outlet taper angle were discussed.

The experimental results indicate that the ultrasonic vibration electrode generates a periodic pressure difference to the electrolyte. This periodic pressure difference forms the pumping effect and the cavitation effect. The pumping effect causes a wide range of electrolytes to be sucked into and pushed out off the machining gap. Besides, the periodic pressure difference leads to a cavitation effect, which produces microbubbles. Once the microbubble collapse, it produces a microjet which disturbs a small range of electrolytes instantaneously. Both effects can effectively refresh the electrolyte in the machining gap, supply the ions consumed in the electrochemical reaction, and exhaust the solid reaction products, gases, and reaction heat in the gap. The phenomenon enhances the processing speed and reduces the average diagonal length of micro-hole array. By using ultrasonic-assisted electrochemical machining micro-hole array, when the ultrasonic amplitude is increased from 0.94 μm (power of ultrasonic vibration lv.1) to 2.87 μm (power of ultrasonic vibration lv.1), the processing speed can be improved by more than 500%. Processing under the experimental optimal parameter, such as the power of ultrasonic vibration level 9 (2.87μm), working voltage 11V, pulse off time 50μs and electrode feed rate 5μm/s, can obtain the minimum average diagonal length of 1200μm and smaller diagonal length variation of 44μm. It also improve the inlet and outlet taper angle of micro holes.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致 謝 iv
目 錄 v
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xiii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 4
1-3 文獻回顧 6
1-4 論文架構 11
第二章 實驗基礎原理 12
2-1 電化學加工的基礎理論 12
2-1-1 電化學反應機制 12
2-1-2 法拉第電解定律(Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis) 14
2-1-3 電化學加工速率 15
2-1-4 平衡間隙 16
2-1-5 歐姆定律(Ohm's Law) 16
2-1-6 電極電位-金屬與溶液界面雙電層理論(Electrical Double Layer Theory) 17
2-1-7 陽極極化曲線及其特徵 18
2-1-8 電流密度與電流效率 20
2-1-9 脈衝占空比 22
2-2 超音波原理 23
2-2-1 泵吸作用(Pumping Effect) 23
2-2-2 空蝕作用(Cavitation) 24
2-2-3 超音波振動電極之運動分析 24
2-3 氣泡影響電化學加工之理論(氣泡與導電度關係理論) 27
2-3-1 體積分率(Volume Fraction) 27
2-3-2 導電度(Electrical Conductivity) 27
第三章 實驗設置 29
3-1 實驗方法 29
3-2 實驗設備 30
3-2-1 電化學加工機 30
3-2-2 去離子水系統 31
3-2-3 電子天平 32
3-2-4 電磁加熱攪拌器 33
3-2-5 線切割放電加工機 33
3-2-6 超音波主軸與發振器 34
3-2-7 超音波振幅量刀器 35
3-2-8 直流脈衝電源供應器 36
3-2-9 示波器 37
3-2-10 超音波洗淨機 37
3-2-11 顯微影像量測系統 38
3-2-12 精密試片切割機 39
3-2-13 金相研磨拋光機 39
3-2-14 掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning Electron Microscope) 40
3-2-15 表面輪廓儀 41
3-3 實驗材料 42
3-3-1 不鏽鋼試片 42
3-3-2 一體式陣列刀具電極 43
3-3-3 電解液 44
3-4 實驗流程與方法 46
3-4-1 電解液配製 46
3-4-2 試片準備 47
3-4-3 刀具電極 47
3-4-4 超音波振幅量測 48
3-5 實驗參數設定 49
3-6 實驗架構 51
3-7 實驗結果量測與觀察 52
3-7-1 微孔量測 52
3-7-2 幾何特徵觀察 54
第四章 實驗結果與討論 57
4-1 傳統電化學加工微孔陣列之結果 57
4-2 電解液噴流對加工微孔陣列之影響 62
4-3 有無超音波輔助對加工微孔陣列之影響 66
4-4 超音波振幅對加工微孔陣列之影響 69
4-5 工作電壓對加工微孔陣列之影響 76
4-6 脈衝休止時間對加工微孔陣列之影響 83
4-7 電極進給速率對加工微孔陣列之影響 90
第五章 結論 97
未來展望 100
參考文獻 101
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