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研究生:莊嘉智
研究生(外文):Chia-Chih Chuang
論文名稱:以雷射碳化靜電紡絲碳奈米纖維製作超級電容電極
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication of Carbon Nanofiber for Supercapacitor Electrodes by Laser Carbonization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber
指導教授:何正榮
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:靜電紡絲雷射碳化超級電容碳奈米纖維
外文關鍵詞:electrospinninglaser carbonizationsuper capacitorscarbon nanofibers
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以碳為原料作為電極的超級電容,不僅成本低廉,也能應用在更廣的溫度範圍。本研究先以靜電紡絲技術製備出奈米纖維膜,再運用雷射將奈米纖維膜快速碳化,形成碳奈米纖維膜作為雙電層電容的電極,運用靜電紡絲製備出來的纖維具有極佳的連續性,所製作出來的碳奈米纖維能有較好的導電性,降低電容的內電阻。碳奈米纖維上的孔洞特性,用在雙電層電容的電極是很好的選擇,使用雷射快速加熱增加孔洞量,也能用來提升電容。
在雷射碳化方面還有很多優點,相較於傳統以管式爐碳化,其加熱與降溫常需要數小時,而使用雷射碳化,可將製程時間減少至數分鐘、甚至數十秒。雷射可以使用更少的能量將碳化溫度提升到更高,增加能量使用效率,更高的碳化溫度也能有更好的石墨化程度,使碳奈米纖維電極的導電度更好。因此,對於應用在雙電層電容的碳奈米纖維電極,使用靜電紡絲加雷射碳化的方式,不僅提升生產效率、節省成本又能有效能的提升。
結果顯示,本研究所製作的碳奈米纖維,纖維直徑約300奈米,在未經任何活化過程下,比表面積33.63 m²/g,在使用3M KOH當電解質時,用三電極測試最高達到21.66 F/g的比電容值,是使用傳統管式爐加熱所獲碳奈米纖維電極的數倍。
Using carbon as an electrode, the supercapacitor not only has the advantage of reducing material costs, but also is applicable to a wider temperature range. In this study, the carbon-based nanofiber membrane electrode, for an electric double layer capacitor, was fabricated by the techniques of electrospinning and a follow-up laser carbonization. The fibers prepared by electrospinning take the advantage of excellent fiber continuity that leads to better electrode conductivity and lower internal resistance on the resulting supercapacitor. The characteristics of cavities and holes on the laser-carbonized nanofibers are beneficial for the electrodes of electric double layer capacitors. The rapid heating rate of the laser increases the number of holes in the nanofibers, thereby successfully improving the capacitance effect.
Compared with traditional tube furnace heating for carbonization, the heating and cooling cycles often take several hours, laser carbonization can reduce the processing time to several minutes or even tens of seconds. The laser can use less energy to raise the carbonization temperature to a higher level, increasing the energy use efficiency. A higher carbonization temperature also leads to a better degree of graphitization, which makes the carbon nanofiber electrode be more conductive. Therefore, the carbon nanofiber electrodes used in electric double-layer capacitors, that are obtained by electrospinning and laser carbonization, can not only improve production efficiency, but also effectively improves electrode performance.
Results show that the diameter of the carbon nanofibers fabricated in this study is about 300 nm. Without any activation process, the specific surface area can reach 33.63 m²/g. When using 3M KOH as the electrolyte and characterized using a three-electrode tester, the specific capacitance is measured to be 21.66 F/g that is several times higher than the carbon nanofiber electrodes obtained by heating in a traditional tube furnace.
摘要 i
abstract ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 viii
Chapter 1 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究背景、目的與方法 3
Chapter 2 文獻回顧與基礎理論 5
2-1 超級電容器簡介及原理 5
2-1-1 電雙層電容 5
2-1-2 擬電容 6
2-1-3 碳系電極材料 9
2-2 靜電紡絲 14
2-2-1 靜電紡絲原理 14
2-3 碳纖維製備 15
2-3-1 穩定化 16
2-3-2 碳化 16
2-4 雷射碳化 19
2-4-1 雷射碳化碳纖維 19
2-4-2 雷射碳化奈米碳纖維布 21
2-5 三氧化鉬 24
2-6 傳承與創新 25
Chapter 3 實驗方法 26
3-1 實驗流程 26
3-2 實驗步驟 28
3-2-1 靜電紡絲溶液配製 28
3-2-2 靜電紡絲 28
3-2-3 穩定化 29
3-2-4 雷射碳化 29
3-3 實驗用品 31
3-4 材料檢測儀器 33
3-4-1 場發掃描式電子顯微鏡 33
3-4-2 電化學分析儀 33
3-4-3 拉曼光譜儀 33
3-4-4 氮氣吸附孔隙儀 33
3-4-5 傅立葉轉換紅外光譜 34
Chapter 4 結果與討論 35
4-1 靜電紡絲溶液製備結果 35
4-2 靜電紡絲 39
4-3 穩定化過程 40
4-4 雷射碳化 42
4-4-1 氮氣等溫吸脫附測試 46
4-4-2 拉曼光譜檢測 51
4-5 電化學測試 53
Chapter 5 結論與未來工作 58
5-1 結論 58
5-2 未來工作 59
參考文獻 60
碩士論文口試教授問題集 62
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