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研究生:翁資豪
研究生(外文):Zi-Hao Weng
論文名稱:具有反射對稱性之多層週期結構的介面態與札克相之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research of the Interface State and Zak Phase of Multilayer Periodic Structure with Inversion Symmetry
指導教授:欒丕綱
指導教授(外文):Pi-Gang Luan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:光電科學與工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:反射對稱性
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本論文主要探討兩種材料 (AB 週期層狀結構) 與三種材料 (ABC 週期層狀結構)
所構成的一維光子晶體系統的能帶拓樸相變 (topological transition) 與介面態
(interface state)。已知在 AB 週期層狀結構中,當設定晶胞具有反射對稱性
(inversion symmetry) 時,各能帶的札克相 (Zak phase) 只有兩個可能值: 0 與 π;
此時可以調整介電常數和每層的厚度來獲得所需的拓樸能帶。隨著以上參數調整並
利用一個晶胞內的光程差不變量,我們可以使一個能隙 (gap) 從打開變成閉合然後
又重新打開。此時計算能隙上下兩能帶的札克相,會發現出現了札克相互換的拓樸
相變 (topological transition),也就是能帶反轉 (band inversion) 的現象。將拓樸相變
前後的兩種 AB 週期結構相接,會在能隙中發現透射率出現峰值,這代表著介面態
(interface state) 的產生。把以上的方法推廣到 ABC 層狀結構,會發現此結構利用光
程差不變量所調整出來的能隙會比 AB 週期層狀結構的還來的小許多,而透射率峰
值的頻寬變得更窄。這代表著介面態的局域性較差,所以需要在結構中使用更多的
晶胞數才能明顯看得出隨遠離介面距離而遞減的介面態。根據數值模擬的結果發現:
如果在 ABC 週期層狀結構當中將 B 的結構參數固定,只調整 A 和 C 的結構參數來
設計相變前的能隙,那麼直接將 A 與 C 層相互對調的結構就是設計上最簡單又可
使介面態具有較好局域效果的相變後結構。
This thesis mainly discusses the topological phase transition of the energy bands and
interface state of a one-dimensional photonic crystal system composed of two materials
(AB periodic layered structure) and three materials (ABC periodic layered structure). It is
known that in the AB periodic layered structure, when the unit cell is set to have inversion
symmetry, the Zak phase of each energy band can take only two possible values: 0 or π.
However, we can choose appropriate permittivity and thickness of each layer to design the
desired topological bands. With the adjustment of the above parameters and keeping the
optical path difference in a unit cell invariant, we can tune a bandgap from open to close
and reopen again. When calculating the Zak phase of the band above and below the energy
gap, it is found that there is a topological phase transition related to the band inversion
phenomenon. Connecting the two AB periodic structures before and after the topological
phase transition, a transmittance peak is found in the bandgap, which corresponds to the
existence of the interface state. Generalizing the above method and applying it to the ABC
layered structures, it is found that the bandgap designed in accordance with the invariance
of the optical path difference will be much smaller than that of the AB periodic layered
structures, and the bandwidth of the transmittance peak becomes narrower. This means that
the localization effect of the interface state in the ABC system is poorer, so a lot of unit
cells are necessary to clearly demonstrate the interface state that decreases exponentially
away from the interface. According to the results of the numerical simulation, it is found
that if the structural parameters of B are fixed in the ABC structure, and we adjust only the
parameters of A and C layers to design the bandgap, then the simplest way to get the new
structure as the structure after topological phase transition is just to exchange the A and C
layers in the original ABC structure. We also found that the connection of two ABC
structures formed by this way gives us the most obvious localized effect of the interface
state.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
一、緒論 1
1-1光子晶體介紹 1
1-2 札克相(Zak phase) 3
二、層狀結構的理論分析 5
2-1 傳遞矩陣 5
2-1-1 如何利用傳遞矩陣來求得能帶結構 10
2-1-2 AB週期結構中的穿透率和反射率 14
2-1-3 矩陣的相似變換 16
2-1-4布洛赫定理(Bloch Theorem) 17
2-2 討論在AB週期結構中能帶反轉的拓樸特性和介面態 17
2-2-1 AB週期結構能帶的反轉現象 18
2-2-2討論在AB周期結構中的介面態 19
三、AB週期結構下的數據分析 21
3-1 AB週期結構能帶與電場分析 21
3-1-1 單一頻率情況下的電場 21
3-1-2多頻率情況下的電場 24
3-2 雙層週期結構下的札克相(Zak phase)數據分析 25
3-2-1 如何由電場分析札克相(Zak phase) 26
3-3 雙層週期結構下介面態分析 29
四、在多層ABC周期結構下的能帶反轉和介面態 32
4-1 多層ABC週期結構的傳遞矩陣 32
4-2 多層ABC週期結構的札克相(Zak phase)分析 35
4-2-1 ABC結構場圖的數據分析 37
4-2-2 ABC結構札克相(Zak phase)的數據分析 39
4-3 在多層ABC週期結構下的介面態分析 41
4-3-1結構的多寡對於介面態透射率的影響 44
4-3-2參數的選擇對介面態的影響 45
五、結論與未來展望 50
5-1 結論 50
5-2 未來展望 51
參考文獻 52
參考文獻
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