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研究生:陳紹玫
研究生(外文):Shao-Mei Chen
論文名稱:科學模擬在小學科學學習的應用與限制
論文名稱(外文):Science simulation applied to the primary school students
指導教授:劉晨鐘劉晨鐘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen-Chung Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:網路學習科技研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:教育科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:感官式模擬概念式模擬科學模擬概念改變
外文關鍵詞:Perceptual simulationConceptual simulationScientific simulationConceptual change
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電腦模擬可以提供學生良好的探究式學習環境,實際的感知經驗對學童的科學學習中扮演重要的角色,因此本研究採用電腦模擬融入探究過程的方式來進行研究,並設計了感官式及概念式模擬來比較學生的學習成效是否有差異以及學習歷程中概念改變的歷程是否不同,探討感官式模擬的學習成效是否會優於概念式模擬。
本研究之研究對象以桃園市兩個國小各兩個班常態編班的五年級學生作為實驗對象,年齡為10到11歲之學生,共75位學生,實驗組採用感官式模擬,控制組則以概念式模擬為主要學習活動方式,蒐集了學生在學習單、學習評量前、後測及延宕測驗的學習表現,以進一步分析學生在活動中的概念改變,並搭配半結構化訪談進一步了解學生學習遭遇的困難以及了解學生對模擬的感知。
藉由分析學生的學習表現概念圖、使用T檢定比較學生的學習成效差異以及使用重複量數來觀察時間和不同的學習方式對於學生學習表現有何差異,揭露學生在科學學習的歷程。實驗組學生經過實驗後較能理解科學現象的發生的原理,在後測及延宕測驗的表現較佳,但在進行科學探究的過程中,部分學生仍然遭遇到困難,根據學生的學習表現分析及事後訪談可以了解到抽象的科學概念對於小學生來說較困難、學生無法把題目情境與模擬結果正確連結,無法完整解釋在模擬中獲得的數據以及對於科學概念無法內化導致未能在延宕測驗有好的表現。
建議未來研究者可以嘗試不同的單元結合科學模擬來進行科學探究活動,並加入感官式的方式,促進學生發生概念改變,進一步藉由質性分析了解學生在探究過程中如何提取與解釋訊息,以對學生遭遇的困難有更深層的理解,提供未來感官式模擬之教學設計與應用一些建議與參考。
Computer simulation can provide student a great way to research, the reality experience is an important part for student in the science field. Therefore, designed perceptual and conceptual simulations to compare whether the learning effectiveness of students is different and whether the course of concept change in the learning process is different.
This paper uses two 5 degrees elementary school student in Taoyuan city be an experimental subject, all of the student's age are 10 or 11 and the experimental group uses perceptual simulation, while the control group uses conceptual simulation as the main learning activity method. It collects the learning performance of students in the study list, the pre-, post-test, and delay tests., and also we interview every student to try to know how's the hard part to study for student and understand how's student's feeling for computer simulation.
Based on the student's learning performance, we use statistic wat T-test to understand the computer simulation's effect and we do a lot of times to observe that. And we find out the student learning by computer simulation have better performance, even some student also encounter difficulty. Also, after interviewing with the student, we find out most of the student has difficulty in abstract part, if abstract concept can't be measured by a good way, student's performance also can't get a good score.
We advise researchers in the future can try to use different sections and combine with computer simulation in learning, to survey how's student to extract and understand the question, and therefore we can know which parts are student's weaknesses and we can focus on that to improve it.
摘要 I
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與問題 3
1.3 研究範圍與限制 3
1.4 論文架構 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
2.1 電腦模擬 (Computer Simulation) 5
2.2 概念改變 (Conceptual Change) 6
第三章 研究方法 8
3.1 研究流程 8
3.2 學習活動設計 9
3.3 實驗設計 11
3.4 研究對象 12
3.5 研究工具 13
3.5.1 CoSci平台 13
3.5.2 學習成效評量測驗 15
3.5.3 學習單 16
3.6 資料收集 16
3.6.1 學習表現 16
3.6.2 學生學習歷程 16
3.6.3 事後訪談 17
3.7 資料分析 17
3.7.1 學習表現 17
第四章 研究結果與討論 20
4.1 學習表現與概念轉變 20
4.1.1 學習表現 20
4.1.2 兩組學生學習成效差異 29
4.1.3 學習成效的重複量數檢驗 31
4.1.4 兩組學生的進步差異 34
4.1.5 事後訪談 35
第五章 結論與建議 38
5.1 結論 38
5.2 未來建議 39
參考文獻 40
中文文獻 40
英文文獻 41
附錄A 學習成效測驗前測、後測 44
附錄B 學習單討論題 45
中文文獻
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邱美虹. (2000). 概念改變研究的省思與啟示. 科學教育學刊, 8(1), 1-34.
陳均伊. (2016). 實施實驗式探究教學對於國小五年級學生 科學探究能力表現之研究. 國立嘉義大學師範學院數理教育研究所碩士論文
黃若瑜. (2016). 認知風格與先備知識於預測, 模擬, 觀察, 解釋科學探究活動之影響. 國立中央大學學習與教學研究所碩士論文
黃湘武. (1980). 皮亞傑認知心理學與科學教育. 科學教育月刊.
黃福坤. (2006). 透過物理模擬動畫進行物理教學與學習. 物理雙月刊

英文文獻
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Jaakkola, T., & Nurmi, S. (2008). Fostering elementary school students’ understanding of simple electricity by combining simulation and laboratory activities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(4), 271-283.
Jonassen, D. H., Carr, C., & Yueh, H. P. (1998). Computers as mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking. TechTrends, 43(2), 24-32.
Kang, J., Lindgren, R., & Planey, J. (2018). Exploring emergent features of student interaction within an embodied science learning simulation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 2(3), 39.
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Lindgren, R., Tscholl, M., Wang, S., & Johnson, E. (2016). Enhancing learning and engagement through embodied interaction within a mixed reality simulation. Computers & Education, 95, 174-187.
Palincsar, A. S., Magnusson, S. J. gutter, & Vincent, M.(2002)supporting guided-inquiry instruction. Teaching exceptional children. 34(3),88-91.
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Reif, F. (1987). Instructional design, cognition, and technology: Applications to the teaching of scientific concepts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 24(4), 309-324.
Smetana, L. K., & Bell, R. L. (2012). Computer simulations to support science instruction and learning: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 34(9), 1337-1370.
Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century.
Srinivasan, M., Hwang, J. C., West, D., & Yellowlees, P. M. (2006). Assessment of clinical skills using simulator technologies. Academic Psychiatry, 30(6), 505-515.
Srisawasdi, N., & Sornkhatha, P. (2014). The effect of simulation-based inquiry on students’ conceptual learning and its potential applications in mobile learning. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation 1, 8(1), 28-49.
Sun, K. T., Lin, Y. C., & Yu, C. J. (2008). A study on learning effect among different learning styles in a Web-based lab of science for elementary school students. Computers & Education, 50(4), 1411-1422.
Trundle, K. C., & Bell, R. L. (2010). The use of a computer simulation to promote conceptual change: A quasi-experimental study. Computers & Education, 54(4), 1078-1088.
Unlu, Z. K., & Dokme, I. (2011). The Effect of Combining Analogy-Based Simulation and Laboratory Activities on Turkish Elementary School Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(4), 320-329.
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